3,203 research outputs found

    The Devil in the Details: Simple and Effective Optical Flow Synthetic Data Generation

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    Recent work on dense optical flow has shown significant progress, primarily in a supervised learning manner requiring a large amount of labeled data. Due to the expensiveness of obtaining large scale real-world data, computer graphics are typically leveraged for constructing datasets. However, there is a common belief that synthetic-to-real domain gaps limit generalization to real scenes. In this paper, we show that the required characteristics in an optical flow dataset are rather simple and present a simpler synthetic data generation method that achieves a certain level of realism with compositions of elementary operations. With 2D motion-based datasets, we systematically analyze the simplest yet critical factors for generating synthetic datasets. Furthermore, we propose a novel method of utilizing occlusion masks in a supervised method and observe that suppressing gradients on occluded regions serves as a powerful initial state in the curriculum learning sense. The RAFT network initially trained on our dataset outperforms the original RAFT on the two most challenging online benchmarks, MPI Sintel and KITTI 2015

    A Large-Scale 3D Face Mesh Video Dataset via Neural Re-parameterized Optimization

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    We propose NeuFace, a 3D face mesh pseudo annotation method on videos via neural re-parameterized optimization. Despite the huge progress in 3D face reconstruction methods, generating reliable 3D face labels for in-the-wild dynamic videos remains challenging. Using NeuFace optimization, we annotate the per-view/-frame accurate and consistent face meshes on large-scale face videos, called the NeuFace-dataset. We investigate how neural re-parameterization helps to reconstruct image-aligned facial details on 3D meshes via gradient analysis. By exploiting the naturalness and diversity of 3D faces in our dataset, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dataset for 3D face-related tasks: improving the reconstruction accuracy of an existing 3D face reconstruction model and learning 3D facial motion prior. Code and datasets will be available at https://neuface-dataset.github.io.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, and 3 tables for the main paper. 8 pages, 6 figures and 3 tables for the appendi

    LaughTalk: Expressive 3D Talking Head Generation with Laughter

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    Laughter is a unique expression, essential to affirmative social interactions of humans. Although current 3D talking head generation methods produce convincing verbal articulations, they often fail to capture the vitality and subtleties of laughter and smiles despite their importance in social context. In this paper, we introduce a novel task to generate 3D talking heads capable of both articulate speech and authentic laughter. Our newly curated dataset comprises 2D laughing videos paired with pseudo-annotated and human-validated 3D FLAME parameters and vertices. Given our proposed dataset, we present a strong baseline with a two-stage training scheme: the model first learns to talk and then acquires the ability to express laughter. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method performs favorably compared to existing approaches in both talking head generation and expressing laughter signals. We further explore potential applications on top of our proposed method for rigging realistic avatars.Comment: Accepted to WACV202

    Determination of the theoretical personalized optimum chest compression point using anteroposterior chest radiography

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    Objective There is a traditional assumption that to maximize stroke volume, the point beneath which the left ventricle (LV) is at its maximum diameter (P_max.LV) should be compressed. Thus, we aimed to derive and validate rules to estimate P_max.LV using anteroposterior chest radiography (chest_AP), which is performed for critically ill patients urgently needing determination of their personalized P_max.LV. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with non-cardiac arrest adults who underwent chest_AP within 1 hour of computed tomography (derivation:validation=3:2). On chest_AP, we defined cardiac diameter (CD), distance from right cardiac border to midline (RB), and cardiac height (CH) from the carina to the uppermost point of left hemi-diaphragm. Setting point zero (0, 0) at the midpoint of the xiphisternal joint and designating leftward and upward directions as positive on x- and y-axes, we located P_max.LV (x_max.LV, y_max.LV). The coefficients of the following mathematically inferred rules were sought: x_max.LV=α0*CD-RB; y_max.LV=β0*CH+γ0 (α0: mean of [x_max.LV+RB]/CD; β0, γ0: representative coefficient and constant of linear regression model, respectively). Results Among 360 cases (52.0±18.3 years, 102 females), we derived: x_max.LV=0.643*CD-RB and y_max.LV=55-0.390*CH. This estimated P_max.LV (19±11 mm) was as close as the averaged P_max.LV (19±11 mm, P=0.13) and closer than the three equidistant points representing the current guidelines (67±13, 56±10, and 77±17 mm; all P<0.001) to the reference identified on computed tomography. Thus, our findings were validated. Conclusion Personalized P_max.LV can be estimated using chest_AP. Further studies with actual cardiac arrest victims are needed to verify the safety and effectiveness of the rule

    Effect of a multi-layer infection control barrier on the micro-hardness of a composite resin

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple layers of an infection control barrier on the micro-hardness of a composite resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One, two, four, and eight layers of an infection control barrier were used to cover the light guides of a high-power light emitting diode (LeD) light curing unit (LCU) and a low-power halogen LCU. The composite specimens were photopolymerized with the LCUs and the barriers, and the micro-hardness of the upper and lower surfaces was measured (n=10). The hardness ratio was calculated by dividing the bottom surface hardness of the experimental groups by the irradiated surface hardness of the control groups. The data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS: The micro-hardness of the composite specimens photopolymerized with the LED LCU decreased significantly in the four- and eight-layer groups of the upper surface and in the two-, four-, and eight-layer groups of the lower surface. The hardness ratio of the composite specimens wa

    Efficacy of imatinib mesylate-based front-line therapy in pediatric chronic myelogenous leukemia

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    PurposeDespite the established role of imatinib (IM) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in adults, there are few reports on its efficacy in children. In this study, we compared the outcomes of children with CML before and after the advent of IM-based treatment.MethodsThe study cohort consisted of 52 patients treated for CML at the Department of Pediatrics, The Catholic University of Korea from January 1995 to October 2010. Patients were divided and analyzed according to the preImatinib group (pre-IMG) and imatinib group (IMG).ResultsMedian age at diagnosis for the overall cohort (pre-IMG, n=27; IMG, n=25) was 9 years, with a median follow-up duration of survivors of 84 months. Except for 5 patients in the IMG, all were diagnosed in chronic phase (CP). The overall survival (OS) of patients diagnosed in CP was 45.7% and 89.7% for pre-IMG and IMG, respectively (P=0.025). The OS of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients in the 2 groups was similar, but the OS of patients diagnosed in CP who did not receive HSCT was superior in IMG (91.7% vs. 16.7%, P=0.014). Of the 12 patients in IMG who remained on IM without HSCT, 2 showed disease progression, compared to 11 of 12 in pre-IMG. No difference was observed in the progression free survival (PFS) of matched donor HSCT recipients and IM-based treatment recipients.ConclusionSimilar PFS of patients treated with IM and those who received matched donor HSCT underscore the potential of IM as effective first-line treatment in childhood CML

    Calculation of the Cardiothoracic Ratio from Portable Anteroposterior Chest Radiography

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    Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), the ratio of cardiac diameter (CD) to thoracic diameter (TD), is a useful screening method to detect cardiomegaly, but is reliable only on posteroanterior chest radiography (chest PA). We performed this cross-sectional 3-phase study to establish reliable CTR from anteroposterior chest radiography (chest AP). First, CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratios were determined at different radiation distances by manipulating chest computed tomography to simulate chest PA and AP. CDChest PA was inferred from multiplying CDChest AP by this ratio. Incorporating this CD and substituting the most recent TDChest PA, we calculated the 'corrected' CTR and compared it with the conventional one in patients who took both the chest radiographies. Finally, its validity was investigated among the critically ill patients who performed portable chest AP. CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratio was {0.00099 × (radiation distance [cm])} + 0.79 (n = 61, r = 1.00, P < 0.001). The corrected CTR was highly correlated with the conventional one (n = 34, difference: 0.00016 ± 0.029; r = 0.92, P < 0.001). It was higher in congestive than non-congestive patients (0.53 ± 0.085; n = 38 vs 0.49 ± 0.061; n = 46, P = 0.006). Its sensitivity and specificity was 61% and 54%. In summary, reliable CTR can be calculated from chest AP with an available previous chest PA. This might help physicians detect congestive cardiomegaly for patients undergoing portable chest AP

    Successful Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Within the Neck of a Coronary Sinus Diverticulum

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    Posteroseptal accessory pathways are often associated with coronary sinus diverticula. These diverticula contain myocardial coats which serve as a bypass tract. We report a 54-year-old woman who underwent radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The surface electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated pre-excitation, indicating a posteroseptal accessory pathway. A catheter ablation via a transaortic approach failed to ablate the accessory pathway. Coronary sinus venography revealed the presence of a diverticulum near the ostium. An electrogram in the neck of the diverticulum showed the coronary sinus myocardial extension potential, which was successfully ablated by delivery of RF energy
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