1,487 research outputs found

    Comparison of the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on hospital stayin robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: a retrospective study

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    Abstract Background Sugammadex reduces postoperative complications. We sought to determine whether it could reduce the length of hospital stay, post-anesthetic recovery time, unplanned readmission, and charges for patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) when compared to neostigmine. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent RALP between July 2012 and July 2017, in whom rocuronium was used as a neuromuscular blocker. The primary outcome was the length of hospital stay after surgery in patients who underwent reversal with sugammadex when compared to those who underwent reversal with neostigmine. The secondary outcomes were post-anesthetic recovery time, hospital charges, and unplanned readmission within 30 days after RALP. Results In total, 1430 patients were enrolled. Using a generalized linear model in a propensity score-matched cohort, sugammadex use was associated with a 6% decrease in the length of hospital stay (mean: sugammadex 7.7 days vs. neostigmine 8.2 days; odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.89, 0.98], P = 0.008) and an 8% decrease in post-anesthetic recovery time (mean: sugammadex 36.7 min vs. neostigmine 40.2 min; OR 0.92, 95% CI [0.90, 0.94], P < 0.001) as compared to neostigmine use; however, it did not reduce the 30-day unplanned readmission rate (P = 0.288). The anesthesia charges were higher in the sugammadex group than in the neostigmine group (P < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of postoperative net charges (P = 0.061) and total charges (P = 0.100). Conclusions Compared to the reversal of rocuronium effects with neostigmine, reversal with sugammadex after RALP was associated with a shorter hospital stay and post-anesthetic recovery time, and was not associated with 30-day unplanned readmission rates and net charges

    Effect of rhBMP-2 applied with a 3D-printed titanium implant on new bone formation in rabbit calvarium

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    Objective: This study sought to compare the biocompatibility of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed titanium implant with a conventional machined titanium product, as well as the effect of such implant applied with recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type 2 (rhBMP-2) for guided bone regeneration.&nbsp;Methodology: Disk-shaped titanium specimens fabricated either by the conventional machining technique or by the 3D-printing technique were compared by MC3T3-E1 cells cytotoxicity assay. New bone formation was evaluated using a rapid prototype titanium cap applied to the calvaria of 10 rabbits, which were divided into two groups: one including an atelopeptide collagen plug on one side of the cap (group I) and the other including a plug with rhBMP-2 on the other side (group II). At six and 12 weeks after euthanasia, rabbits calvaria underwent morphometric analysis through radiological and histological examination.&nbsp;Results: Through the cytotoxicity assay, we identified a significantly higher number of MC3T3-E1 cells in the 3D-printed specimen when compared to the machined specimen after 48 hours of culture. Moreover, morphometric analysis indicated significantly greater bone formation at week 12 on the side where rhBMP-2 was applied when evaluating the upper portion immediately below the ca p. Conclusion: The results suggest that 3D-printed titanium implant applied with rhBMP-2 enables new bone formation

    Efficacy and Safety of a Dexamethasone Implant in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema at Tertiary Centers in Korea

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    Purpose. To evaluate the real-world efficacy and safety of the dexamethasone implant (DEX implant) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. Retrospective, multicenter, and noncomparative study of DME patients who were treated with at least one DEX implant. A total of 186 eyes from 165 patients were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), complications, and number of retreatments were collected. Data at baseline and monthly for 6 months were analyzed. Results. The average baseline BCVA and CRT were 0.60 LogMAR and 491.6 μm, respectively. The mean BCVA improved until 3 months and then decreased up to 6 months of follow-up (0.53, 0.49, and 0.55 LogMAR at 1, 3, and 6 months; p=0.001, <0.001, and 0.044, resp.). The change of mean CRT was similar to BCVA (345.0, 357.7, and 412.5 μm at 1, 3, and 6 months, p<0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, resp.). 91 eyes (48.9%) received additional treatment with anti-VEGF or DEX implant. The average treatment-free interval was 4.4 months. In group analyses, the DEX implant was more effective in pseudophakic eyes, DME with subretinal fluid (SRF), or diffuse type. Conclusions. Intravitreal dexamethasone implants are an effective treatment for patients with DME, most notably in pseudophakic eyes, DME with SRF, or diffuse type. A half of these patients require additional treatment within 6 months

    Optical Shaping of Plasma Cavity for Controlled Laser Wakefield Acceleration

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    Laser wakefield accelerators rely on relativistically moving micron-sized plasma cavities that provide extremely high electric field >100GV/m. Here, we demonstrate transverse shaping of the plasma cavity to produce controlled sub-GeV electron beams, adopting laser pulses with an axially rotatable ellipse-shaped focal spot. We showed the control capability on electron self-injection, charge, and transverse profile of the electron beam by rotating the focal spot. We observed that the effect of the elliptical focal spot was imprinted in the profiles of the electron beams and the electron energy increased, as compared to the case of a circular focal spot. We performed 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations which reproduced the experimental results and revealed dynamics of a new asymmetric self-injection process. This simple scheme offers a novel control method on laser wakefield acceleration to produce tailored electron beams and x-rays for various applications.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis From Bacilluscereus Group Using a Unique Marker Based on Real-Time PCR

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    The efficiency of a novel biomarker (the transcriptional regulator, XRE) was tested and evaluated in differentiating Bacillus thuringiensis from Bacillus cereus group species in environmental and spiked samples based on PCR and real-time PCR. Totally 120 strains, representing two bacterial groups, B. cereus group and non-Bacillus sp., were used to evaluate the performance of XRE and crystal protein (cry2, an existing biomarker). Further, three diverse samples (kimbap, lettuce, and spinach) were inoculated with B. thuringiensis and prominent biomarkers XRE and cry2 were used as targets. Direct analysis of the detection results for the pure cultures of B. cereus group wild-types, references and type strains revealed an accuracy rate of 97.5% targeting XRE, and 83.3% targeting cry2. The real-time PCR was constructed with a R2-value of 0.993. For the artificially contaminated samples, a concentration of 103 CFU/g of B. thuringiensis in spiked food samples could be detected using real-time PCR targeting XRE. A good performance was obtained with XRE in discriminating B. thuringiensis from B. cereus groups, as well as detecting B. thuringiensis in spiked food samples with PCR or real-time PCR. Therefore, this real-time PCR targeting XRE can be used as a dependable and promising tool to identify B. thuringiensis in foods

    Cystatin C, a novel indicator of renal function, reflects severity of cerebral microbleeds

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    Background: Chronic renal insufficiency, diagnosed using creatinine based estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or microalbumiuria, has been associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). Cystatin C has been shown to be a more sensitive renal indicator than conventional renal markers. Under the assumption that similar pathologic mechanisms of the small vessel exist in the brain and kidney, we hypothesized that the levels of cystatin C may delineate the relationship between CMBs and renal insufficiency by detecting subclinical kidney dysfunction, which may be underestimated by other indicators, and thus reflect the severity of CMBs more accurately. Methods: Data was prospectively collected for 683 patients with ischemic stroke. The severity of CMBs was categorized by the number of lesions. Patients were divided into quartiles of cystatin C, estimated GFR and microalbumin/creatinine ratios. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of each renal indicator with CMBs. Results: In models including both quartiles of cystatin C and estimated GFR, only cystatin C quartiles were significant (the highest vs. the lowest, adjusted OR, 1.88; 95% CI 1.05-3.38; p = 0.03) in contrast to estimated GFR (the highest vs. the lowest, adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI 0.38-4.36; p = 0.70). A model including both quartiles of cystatin C and microalbumin/creatinine ratio also showed that only cystatin C quartiles was associated with CMBs (the highest vs. the lowest, adjusted OR, 2.06; 95% CI 1.07-3.94; p = 0.03). These associations were also observed in the logistic models using log transformed-cystatin C, albumin/creatinine ratio and estimated GFR as continuous variables. Cystatin C was a significant indicator of deep or infratenorial CMBs, but not strictly lobar CMBs. In addition, cystatin C showed the greatest significance in c-statistics for the presence of CMBs (AUC = 0.73 ± 0.03; 95% CI 0.66-0.76; p = 0.02). Conclusion: Cystatin C may be the most sensitive indicator of CMB severity among the renal disease markers.Peer Reviewe

    Electron energy increase in a laser wakefield accelerator using up-ramp plasma density profiles

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    The phase velocity of the wakefield of a laser wakefield accelerator can, theoretically, be manipulated by shaping the longitudinal plasma density profile, thus controlling the parameters of the generated electron beam. We present an experimental method where using a series of shaped longitudinal plasma density profiles we increased the mean electron peak energy more than 50%, from 175 +/- 1 MeV to 262 +/- 10 MeV and the maximum peak energy from 182 MeV to 363 MeV. The divergence follows closely the change of mean energy and decreases from 58.9 +/- 0.45 mrad to 12.6 +/- 1.2 mrad along the horizontal axis and from 35 +/- 0.3 mrad to 8.3 +/- 0.69 mrad along the vertical axis. Particle-in-cell simulations show that a ramp in a plasma density profile can affect the evolution of the wakefield, thus qualitatively confirming the experimental results. The presented method can increase the electron energy for a fixed laser power and at the same time offer an energy tunable source of electrons.© The Author(s) 201

    Molecular characterization and genogrouping of VP1 of aquatic birnavirus GC1 isolated from rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in Korea

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    The cDNA nucleotide sequence of genome segment B encoding the VP1 protein was determined for the aquatic birnavirus GC1 isolated from the rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in Korea. The VP1 protein of GC1 contains a 2,538 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein comprising 846 amino acid residues that has a predicted MW of 94 kDa. The sequence contains 6 potential Asn-X-Ser/Thr motifs. Eight potential Ser phosphorylation sites and 1 potential Tyr phophorylation site were also identified. GC1 contains the Leu-Lys-Asn (LKN) motif instead of the typical Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) motif found in other aquatic birnaviruses. We also identified the GLPYIGKT motif, the putative GTP-binding site at amino acid position 248. In total, the VP1 regions of 22 birnavirus strains were compared for analyzing the genetic relationship among the family Birnaviridae. Based on the deduced amino acid sequences, GC1 was observed to be more closely related to the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) from the USA, Japan, and Korea than the IPNV from Europe. Further, aquatic birnaviruses containing GC1 and IPNV have genogroups that are distinct from those in the genus Avibirnaviruses and Entomo-birnaviruses. The birnavirusstrains were clustered into 5 genogroups based on their amino acid sequences. The marine aquatic birnaviruses (MABVs) containing GC1 were included in the MABV genogroup; the IPNV strains isolated from Korea, Japan, and the USA were included in genogroup 1 and the IPNV strains isolated primarily from Europe were included in genogroup 2. Avibirnaviruses and entomobirnaviruses were included in genogroup 3 and 4, respectively