33,153 research outputs found

    Hadronic B Decays to Charmless VT Final States

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    Charmless hadronic decays of B mesons to a vector meson (V) and a tensor meson (T) are analyzed in the frameworks of both flavor SU(3) symmetry and generalized factorization. We also make comments on B decays to two tensor mesons in the final states. Certain ways to test validity of the generalized factorization are proposed, using BVTB \to VT decays. We calculate the branching ratios and CP asymmetries using the full effective Hamiltonian including all the penguin operators and the form factors obtained in the non-relativistic quark model of Isgur, Scora, Grinstein and Wise.Comment: 27 pages, no figures, LaTe

    Effects of uncertainties and errors on Lyapunov control

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    Lyapunov control (open-loop) is often confronted with uncertainties and errors in practical applications. In this paper, we analyze the robustness of Lyapunov control against the uncertainties and errors in quantum control systems. The analysis is carried out through examinations of uncertainties and errors, calculations of the control fidelity under influences of the certainties and errors, as well as discussions on the caused effects. Two examples, a closed control system and an open control system, are presented to illustrate the general formulism.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Observable estimation of entanglement of formation and quantum discord for bipartite mixed quantum states

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    We present observable lower and upper bounds for the entanglement of formation (EOF) and quantum discord (QD), which facilitates estimates of EOF and QD for arbitrary experimental unknown states in finite-dimensional bipartite systems. These bounds can be easily obtained by a few experimental measurements on a twofold copy ϱϱ\varrho\otimes\varrho of the mixed states. Based on our results, we use the experimental measurement data of the real experiment given by Schmid \textit{et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{101}, 260505 (2008)] to obtain the lower and upper bounds of EOF and QD for the experimental unknown state.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figure

    Einstein Manifolds As Yang-Mills Instantons

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    It is well-known that Einstein gravity can be formulated as a gauge theory of Lorentz group where spin connections play a role of gauge fields and Riemann curvature tensors correspond to their field strengths. One can then pose an interesting question: What is the Einstein equations from the gauge theory point of view? Or equivalently, what is the gauge theory object corresponding to Einstein manifolds? We show that the Einstein equations in four dimensions are precisely self-duality equations in Yang-Mills gauge theory and so Einstein manifolds correspond to Yang-Mills instantons in SO(4) = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R gauge theory. Specifically, we prove that any Einstein manifold with or without a cosmological constant always arises as the sum of SU(2)_L instantons and SU(2)_R anti-instantons. This result explains why an Einstein manifold must be stable because two kinds of instantons belong to different gauge groups, instantons in SU(2)_L and anti-instantons in SU(2)_R, and so they cannot decay into a vacuum. We further illuminate the stability of Einstein manifolds by showing that they carry nontrivial topological invariants.Comment: v4; 17 pages, published version in Mod. Phys. Lett.

    Incompressible strips in dissipative Hall bars as origin of quantized Hall plateaus

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    We study the current and charge distribution in a two dimensional electron system, under the conditions of the integer quantized Hall effect, on the basis of a quasi-local transport model, that includes non-linear screening effects on the conductivity via the self-consistently calculated density profile. The existence of ``incompressible strips'' with integer Landau level filling factor is investigated within a Hartree-type approximation, and non-local effects on the conductivity along those strips are simulated by a suitable averaging procedure. This allows us to calculate the Hall and the longitudinal resistance as continuous functions of the magnetic field B, with plateaus of finite widths and the well-known, exactly quantized values. We emphasize the close relation between these plateaus and the existence of incompressible strips, and we show that for B values within these plateaus the potential variation across the Hall bar is very different from that for B values between adjacent plateaus, in agreement with recent experiments.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, All color onlin

    Sustainable farming with native rocks: the transition without revolution.

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    The development process which humanity passed through favored a series of conquests, reflected in the better quality of life and longevity, however, it also provoked upsets and severe transformation in the environment and in the human food security. Such process is driving the ecosystems to be homogeneous, and, therefore,the nutrients� supply, via nourishment. To change this panorama, the present work discusses the gains of incorporating the stonemeal technique as a strategic alternative to give back the essential fertile characteristics to the soils. This technology has the function of facilitating the rejuvenation of the soils and increasing the availability of the necessary nutrients to the full development of the plants which is a basic input for the proliferation of life in all its dimensions