60 research outputs found

    Pre-analysis plans: a stocktaking

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    The evidence-based community has championed the public registration of pre-analysis plans (PAPs) as a solution to the problem of research credibility, but without any evidence that PAPs actually bolster the credibility of research. We analyze a representative sample of 195 pre-analysis plans (PAPs) from the American Economic Association (AEA) and Evidence in Governance and Politics (EGAP) registration platforms to assess whether PAPs are sufficiently clear, precise and comprehensive to be able to achieve their objectives of preventing fishing and reducing the scope for post-hoc adjustment of research hypotheses. We also analyze a subset of 93 PAPs from projects that have resulted in publicly available papers to ascertain how faithfully they adhere to their pre-registered specifications and hypotheses. We find significant variation in the extent to which PAPs are accomplishing the goals they were designed to achieve

    Education, civic engagement and youth support for violence in fragile states: evidence from Somaliland

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    We examine whether opportunities for civic engagement mediate the effect of access to education on political violence. In fragile states, solely providing education may be necessary, but not sufficient, to reduce violence. Access to schooling can generate unintended grievances against the government. We argue that combining access to education with opportunities for civic participation helps youths to use and trust nonviolent channels to engage with their communities and address their grievances, minimizing the risk of conflict. To test our argument of the interactive effect of education and civic participation we leverage a unique education program implemented in partnership with the Government of Somalia. Using original data from a survey of 800 young people, as well as qualitative interviews, we find support our argument. This article provides new empirical evidence of the role of civic engagement in promoting political stability in fragile states

    Chiefs’ endorsements and voter behavior

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    Traditional leaders can influence electoral outcomes. We designed an experiment to investigate why public endorsements by chiefs affect voters – and which types of voters they influence. Chiefs have incentives to prefer politicians who will promote local development, and can use endorsements to sway elections accordingly. We argue that voters often interpret chiefs’ endorsements as a signal of candidate quality. To assess this argument, we exposed voters to real endorsements made by chiefs during Ghana’s 2020 presidential election. We show that endorsements impact the vote choice of undecided voters. Consistent with a signaling mechanism, respondents exposed to chiefs’ rationale for endorsing a candidate were no more likely to vote for the endorsed candidate than those who only heard chiefs’ approval of a candidate. Further, treated respondents hold higher evaluations of the endorsed candidate on multiple dimensions of candidate quality. Our results suggest that chiefs influence voters through a non-coercive mechanism, which has positive implications for accountability

    The impact of parliamentary debates on Ghana's 2016 elections

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    Both televised and radio debates increase informed and tolerant voter behaviour, boding well for peaceful elections in young democracies, say Sarah Brierly, Eric Kramon and George Ofosu

    The evolving perspectives on the Chinese labour regime in Africa

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    This article explores the logics, persistence and evolution of perspectives on the Chinese labour regime in Africa. Studies find that Chinese firms’ labour practices engender abuse via casualisation of labour, low remuneration, and a general lack of adherence to occupational safety. Contrarian studies however demonstrate variations among Chinese firms’ labour practices as mediated by the labour dynamics of host countries, labour specificities and industrial capitalism dynamics. The article concludes by questioning the ‘talent gap’ dynamic in Africa in relation to Chinese firms’ managerial hiring practices and calls for an engaged scholarship on how Chinese investment in Africa’s human resource base is altering the ‘talent gap’ phenomenon

    Beyond the doom: Sustainable water management practices of small-scale mining operations

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    Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) is often implicated as a source of pollution to water systems. In this paper, we explore the water management systems of a formalised small-scale mining operator in Ghana to explicate how its operational activities and organising routines contribute to sustainable water management in practice. Emphasizing how sustainable management of water bodies play out in organising, our study highlights the underpinning mechanisms shaping the shift to environmentally sustainable operations. By unpacking the complex practices of water management in ASM operations, the study extends understanding of how sustainability driven practices emerge and comes to be identified and labelled in the context of an industry historically tagged as an ‘enemy of the environment’, and the consequences that follow. Thus, contrary to the dominant logic of stigmatizing ASM as water polluting champions, our study suggests that ASM operators could be caretakers of water bodies and the environment. We conclude by highlighting implications for policy on sustainable water management

    Defying the gloom: In search of the ‘golden’ practices of small-scale mining operations

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    Dominant narratives on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) often portray mining regions as ‘informal’ zones that suffer massively from environmental degradation problems. Such insistence on the poor environmental performance of ASM zones has dovetailed with a lack of scholarly attention to some of the ‘golden’ environmental management practices taking place in some of these mining areas. In this paper, we explore how the operations of a formalised (registered) small-scale mining operator in Ghana, as objectified in its obligatory and ethical functions, contribute to reducing pollution and mine-degraded landscapes, which have long been viewed as the inevitable consequence of ASM. Emphasizing how the dynamic interplay between resources and environmental demands may come to support public policy, our study shows how mutually constituting demands on mining in highly differentiated contexts could translate into productive outcomes. Contrary to the popular perception that ASM operators are not good stewards of the environment, findings from our study suggest that these operators can be caretakers of the environment and local communities through land reclamation mechanisms. Localisation of labour could, however, contribute to more sustainable livelihoods in mining communities and help curb rising community tensions

    Electoral fraud or violence: the effect of observers on party manipulation strategies

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    This article reports on the effects of domestic election observers on electoral fraud and violence. Using an experimental research design and polling station data on fraud and violence during Ghana's 2012 elections, it shows that observers reduced fraud and violence at the polling stations which they monitored. It is argued that local electoral competition shapes party activists' response to observers. As expected, in single-party dominant areas, parties used their local political networks to relocate fraud to polling stations without an election observer, and, in contrast, party activists relocated violence to stations without observers in competitive areas - a response that requires less local organizational capacity. This highlights how local party organization and electoral incentives can shape the manipulative electoral strategies employed by parties in democratic elections

    Gender and artisanal and small-scale mining: Exploring women's livelihood and occupational roles in formalised settings

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    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) has often been touted as an employment-creation avenue for millions of operators worldwide, including women. This employment-generation narrative has, however, been occasioned by the immense scholarly focus on the informal and labour-intensive segments of ASM operations. Exploring the livelihood and occupational roles of women in formalised ASM settings, data for our inquiry comes mainly from employees of two formalised ASM firms in Ghana. Our study suggests that contrary to the dominant narrative, women's employment avenues remain minimal in formalised settings through capital-labour substitution mechanisms. Our findings further indicate that women play differentiated, high positional roles in formalised settings, contrary to their lower-to-middle-rung roles in ASM labour structures in informal settings. In addition, occupational health and safety mechanisms differ from those at informal ASM sites. Disaggregation of employment figures in relation to female workers in ASM would help to tailor specific policies that encapsulate the duality of operations and attract more women into formalised settings where employment conditions are better

    Environmental Issues of Livestock Production in Developing Countries: Need for Government Intervention Using the Truck Based Approach

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    Globally, the natural environment faces a range of unprecedented challenges which are require a well-structured strategic approach in solving it. One of these challenges is the ever-increasing greenhouse gas emission. Currently majority of our daily activities directly or indirectly contributes to greenhouse gas emission. An effort was taken to understand better the principal function of livestock production in the pollution of the natural environment and to ascertain mitigation policies to curb the effects on human life.Theories such as the Enforcement Strategic Theory, Utilitarian Commitment Theory, Deterrence Theory, and the Social factors Commitment Based theory were used in this study. Already processed statistics, policy strategies, laws in economics as well as authors intuitive proposals and ideas were used in this study. It was ascertained that population growth, fluctuating economies, food preferences, and urbanization had imposed pressure on livestock production and the agricultural sector, thereby leading to the release of odor, ammonia, pathogens, excess phosphorus and nitrogen harming the natural environment and also contribute to greenhouse gas emission. A more significant proportion of the growth in crop production is anticipated because of a rise in the demand for livestock feed. It was found that most livestock farmers do not have a well-regulated operation in most developing countries. To reduce or eliminate these effects, the “truck-based approach” was therefore propounded and proposed to enhance the smooth movement of the livestock droppings to either the crop farm or to the processing house or to the storage room to reduce or prevent unnecessary dumping. Keywords: Livestock Production, Environmental Issues, Green House Gas, Truck Based Approach, Government Regulation, and Developing Countries. DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/10-22-04 Publication date: November 30th 202
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