34 research outputs found

    Small newborns in post-conflict Northern Uganda: Burden and interventions for improved outcomes

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    Introduction: A small newborn can be the result of either a low birthweight (LBW), or a preterm birth (PB), or both. LBW can be due to either a preterm appropriate-for gestational-age (preterm-AGA), or a term small-for-gestational age (term-SGA) or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). An IUGR is a limited in-utero foetal growth rates or foetal weight < 10th percentile. Small newborns have an increased risk of dying, particularly in low-resource settings. We set out to assess the burden, the modifiable risk factors and health outcomes of small newborns in the post-conflict Northern Ugandan district of Lira. In addition, we studied the use of video-debriefing when training health staff in Helping Babies Breathe. Subjects and methods: In 2018-19, we conducted a community-based cohort study on 1556 mother-infant dyads, nested within a cluster randomized trial. In our cohort study, we estimated the incidence and risk factors for LBW and PB and the association of LBW with severe outcomes. We explored the prevalence of and factors associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia, as well as any association between neonatal death and hypoglycaemia. In addition, we conducted a cluster randomized trial to compare Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training in combination with video debriefing to the traditional HBB training alone on the attainment and retention of health worker neonatal resuscitation competency. Results: The incidence of LBW and PB in our cohort was lower than the global estimates, 7.3% and 5.0%, respectively. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria was associated with a reduced risk of LBW. HIV infection was associated with an increased risk of both LBW and PB, while maternal formal education (schooling) of ≥7 years was associated with a reduced risk of LBW and PB. The proportions of neonatal deaths were many-folds higher among LBW infants compared to their non-LBW counterparts. The proportion of neonatal deaths among LBW was 103/1000 live births compared to 5/1000 among the non-LBW. The prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia in our cohort was 2.5%. LBW and PB each independently were associated with an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Neonatal hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation and severe outcomes. We demonstrated that neonatal resuscitation training with video debriefing, improved competence attainment and retention among health workers, compared to traditional HBB training alone. Conclusion: In northern Uganda, small infants still have a many-fold higher risk of dying compared to normal infants. In addition, small infants are also at more risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia compared to normal infants. Efforts are needed to secure essential newborn care, should we reach the target of Sustainable Development Goal number 3.2 of reducing infant mortality to less than 12/1000 live births by 2030

    Health seeking behaviour of small income market vendors: Diabetes primary care in Gulu Municipality, northern Uganda

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    Introduction: Uganda faces a serious threat of non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes; sedentary lifestyles predispose people to these diseases.Objective: To understand the diabetes health seeking behaviour of market vendors at the main market, Gulu Municipality.Method: This cross-sectional study used quantitative and qualitative methods to understand experiences of market vendors on health seeking&nbsp; behaviour. After general sensitization and mobilisation in the market, 400 participants were enrolled for the study, however quantitative analysis was done only on data from 375 participants (316 women and 59 men); 25 participants had missing data; 30 of these 375 were interviewed and the qualitative analyses of their responses offered further insight on health seeking – and is reported here. The qualitative data will be reported later.Results: Mixed responses were obtained from these 30 market vendors about their health seeking behaviour for diabetes. The factors were&nbsp; responsible for their overall health seeking behaviour included crowded hospitals and low frequency of clinic days; lack of accurate knowledge, and uninformed beliefs on diabetes, and poor work-life balance. Major impediments to health seeking were the fear of losing work time and money, and feeling healthy and hence seeing no need for health check-ups or medical care.Conclusion: Awareness of diabetes and the need to seek health care exists, but market vendors are not well informed on tests and care. We&nbsp; recommend that more comprehensive simple-message sensitisation is undertaken to change health seeking behaviour and prevent escalation of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda and beyond. Key words: health seeking behaviour; healthcare services; diabetes; sedentary lifestyle; hypertension; market vendors, Ugand

    Adding video-debriefing to Helping-Babies-Breathe training enhanced retention of neonatal resuscitation knowledge and skills among health workers in Uganda: a cluster randomized trial

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    Background: Skilled birth attendants must be competent to provide prompt resuscitation to save newborn lives at birth. Both knowledge and skills (competence) decline with time after training but the optimal duration for refresher training among frontline-skilled birth attendants in low-resource settings is unknown. Objectives: We assessed the effect of an innovative Helping-Babies-Breathe simulation-based teaching method using video-debriefing compared to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training on 1) neonatal resuscitation knowledge and skills attainment and 2) competence retention among skilled birth attendants in Northern Uganda. Methods: A total of 26 health facilities with 86 birth attendants were equally randomised to intervention and control arms. The 2nd edition of the American Association of Pediatrics Helping-Babies-Breathe curriculum was used for training and assessment. Knowledge and skills were assessed pre- and post-training, and during follow-up at 6 months. A mixed effects linear regression model for repeated measures was used to assess the short and long-term effects of the intervention on neonatal resuscitation practices while accounting for clustering. Results: Eighty-two (95.3%) skilled birth attendants completed follow-up at 6 months. Approximately 80% of these had no prior Helping-Babies-Breathe training and 75% reported practicing neonatal resuscitation routinely. Standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training with video-debriefing improved knowledge and skills attainment post-training [adjusted mean difference: 5.34; 95% CI: 0.82–10.78] and retention [adjusted mean difference: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.52–4.41] over 6 months post-training compared to standard training after adjusting for confounding and clustering. Factors that reduced knowledge and skills retention among birth attendants were monthly resuscitation of one neonate or more and being in service for more than 5 years. Conclusion: Adding video-debriefing to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training had an effect on birth attendants’ competence attainment and retention over 6 months in Uganda. However, more research is needed to justify the proposed intervention in this context.publishedVersio

    Inequity in utilization of health care facilities during childbirth: a community-based survey in post-conflict Northern Uganda

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    Aim To assess inequity in utilization of health care facilities during childbirth and factors associated with home births in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Subjects and methods In 2016, we surveyed 930 mothers with children under the age of 2 years in Lira district, Northern Uganda. We used multiple correspondence analysis to construct the wealth index in quintiles, based on household assets. The concentration index is the measure of socioeconomic inequality used in this article, which we calculated using the Stata DASP package. We also conducted multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with home births. Results A third of mothers (n = 308) gave birth from home [33%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (26%–41%)]. Giving birth at a health facility was pro-rich with a concentration index of 0.10 [95% CI (0.05–0.14)]. Upon decomposing the concentration index, the most important determinant of inequity was the mother's residence. Factors associated with home births in multivariable logistic regression included rural residence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.1, 95% CI (1.8–5.3)], precipitate labor [AOR 4.18, 95% CI (2.61–6.71)], and labor starting in the evening or at night. Mothers who had previously given birth from home were more likely to give birth at home again [AOR 40.70, 95% CI (18.70–88.61)], whereas mothers who had experienced a complication during a previous birth were less likely to give birth at home [AOR 0.45, 95% CI (0.28–0.95)]. Conclusion There was inequity in the utilization of health facilities for childbirth. Programs that promote health facility births should prioritize poorer mothers and those in rural areas.publishedVersio

    Perinatal death in Northern Uganda: incidence and risk factors in a community-based prospective cohort study

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    Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.publishedVersio

    Managing food security among the rural poor in uganda: recognising vulnerability and it's drivers

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    The presentation reviews drivers of vulnerability in poor rural households, including size of household, low participation in food production, low innovation adoption, and low ownership of livestock. There are few assets and distant extension services, supplies and markets

    Managing food security among the rural poor in uganda: recognising vulnerability and it's drivers

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    This paper analyzes food insecurity vulnerability in rural poor households in Uganda, based on a study conducted in three districts with different food situations. Findings of the study show drivers of vulnerability are large household sizes; lack of alternative cash sources; small land holdings; low application of productivity innovations; neglect of Indigenous minor crops; and limited assets that include lack of livestock, weak social capital, distant extension services, supply and market centres

    Food security and minor crops in Uganda: the farmers' perspective and policy implications

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    This paper analyses the production and utilization of minor crops, including roots and tubers, Indigenous vegetables and pulses such as cowpea, pigeon pea and chickpea. It explores the extent to which agriculture-related policies affect production and utilization of minor crops in Uganda. Current policies favour production of major crops. Farmers concentrate resources on major crops for marketing, neglecting food and nutrition security. Ignorance, lack of seed, and low interest are the main reasons indigenous vegetable crops are not grown. The report advocates for better support of local under-utilized crop production through policy change
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