2 research outputs found

    Cell competition is driven by Xrp1-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α

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    生体から不良細胞を除去する「細胞競合」の仕組みの一端を解明 --不良細胞は小胞体ストレス応答機構を使ってタンパク質合成量を低下させ除去される--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2021-12-08.Cell competition is a context-dependent cell elimination via cell-cell interaction whereby unfit cells (‘losers’) are eliminated from the tissue when confronted with fitter cells (‘winners’). Despite extensive studies, the mechanism that drives loser’s death and its physiological triggers remained elusive. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we find that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes cell competition. Mechanistically, ER stress upregulates the bZIP transcription factor Xrp1, which promotes phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α via the kinase PERK, leading to cell elimination. Surprisingly, our genetic data show that different cell competition triggers such as ribosomal protein mutations or RNA helicase Hel25E mutations converge on upregulation of Xrp1, which leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and thus causes reduction in global protein synthesis and apoptosis when confronted with wild-type cells. These findings not only uncover a core pathway of cell competition but also open the way to understanding the physiological triggers of cell competition

    Daunorubicin can eliminate iPS-derived cancer stem cells via ICAD/CAD-independent DNA fragmentation

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    Aim: To identify a drug that can effectively eliminate these cancer stem cells (CSCs) and determine its mode of action.Methods: CSCs were obtained from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) using cancer cell-conditioned media. Drug screening was performed on these cells or after transplantation into mice. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and western blotting.Results: Drug screening studies showed that daunorubicin, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, is specifically cytotoxic to miPS-CSCs. Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with p53 accumulation, activation of the caspase cascade, and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Treatment with the caspase inhibitor abolished daunorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and was therefore considered to act downstream of caspase activation. This was also suppressed by treatment with a Ca2+-specific chelator, which suggested that CAD endonuclease does not contribute. Moreover, no obvious ICAD reduction/degradation was detected.Conclusion: Daunorubicin effectively eliminated CSCs, which are dependent on the p53/caspase signaling cascade. The current findings provided the basis for further studies on CSC-targeted drugs for the development of cancer treatment strategies