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    Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on aspen (Populus tremula) in the middle boreal forests of Republic of Karelia (Russia)

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    The distribution of epiphytic bryophyte and lichen species growing on aspen in the middle boreal forests was studied in southern Karelia (Russia). These forests varied in time-since-disturbance from 80 to 450 years. Two hundred twenty two species of epiphytes, including 178 lichens, 32 mosses and 12 liverworts, were recorded on 192 aspen trees in forests over 24 ha, in the Karelian part of the Vodlozero National Park, Kivach Strict Nature Reserve, Kizhi Sanctuary and Petrozavodsk City. Arthonia biatoricola, A. excipienda and Biatoridium monasteriense were collected in Karelia for the first time. Eighteen rare species (lichens Anaptychia ciliaris, Arthonia vinosa, Bryoria nadvornikiana, Chaenotheca gracilenta, C. stemonea, Lecidea albofuscescens, Lobaria pulmonaria, Melanelixia subaurifera, Nephroma bellum, N. laevigatum, Phaeocalicium populneum, Ramalina thrausta, Rostania occultata, Scytinium subtile, Usnea barbata, mosses Neckera pennata, Plagiomnium drummondii and liverwort Lejeunea cavifolia) listed in the Red Data Book of Republic of Karelia (2007) were found. Relationships between epiphytic lichen and bryophyte species richness and certain environmental variables (at different trunk heights above ground and time-since-disturbance) were evaluated. Lichens and mosses on aspen trunks often occupy different ecological niches. Cover and diversity of bryophytes was high on trunk bases, while the number of lichen species and their cover were higher at a height of 1.3 m above ground level. The total number of lichen species on aspen increased on average from 40 to 60 species per ha with increasing time-since-disturbance from 100 to 450 years. A stabilization in lichen species number was observed at about 200 years since disturbance. No significant correlation was determined between bryophyte diversity on aspens and the time-since-disturbance.

    Structural Features of a Post-Clear-Cutting Ecotone between 90-Year-Old Bilberry Spruce Forest and 35-Year-Old Herbs-Forbs Deciduous Stand

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    In a natural regeneration process, a community dominated by birch and aspen forms in the site 35 years after a bilberry-type spruce stand is logged down. The newly formed ecotone complex consists of four zones, each characterized by certain features of the ground vegetation and epiphytic vegetation structure. The transitional zones and the mature bilberry-type spruce forest feature a clear dominance of boreal dwarf shrubs (bilberry and cowberry). Another feature of the transitional zone is a greater role of hygrophytic mosses of the genera Polytrichum and Sphagnum. Meanwhile, the true mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens dominate under spruce forest canopy, and the moss cover in the young deciduous stand is virtually nonexistent. The structure of epiphytic vegetation depends on the habitat conditions—the surface of tree trunks in the transitional zone is better lit and drier than inside the tree stand, which results in a higher abundance of epiphytic lichens of the genus Cladonia. The deciduous–coniferous fine root biomass ratio is dependent on the tree stand structure and is unrelated to ecotone zones. Overall, studies have demonstrated that transitional zones have certain characteristic ecological and community features, which persist for a long time after tree stand removal

    Flora of lichens, mosses and liverworts of Wrangel Island: New records

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    New records to lichen flora and bryoflora of Wrangel Island are presented. The additions to the island cryptogam flora include 32 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus, 26 mosses and eleven liverwort species. Acarospora sinopica, Alectoria gowardii, Austroplaca sibirica, Calogaya bryochrysion, Hymenelia ceracea, Porpidia ochrolemma, and Sagiolechia protuberans are new to the island and to the Russian Far East. Two lichen species (Lecidea lithophila and Rinodina terrestris), as well as two liverwort taxa (Clevea hyaline, Lophoziopsis excisa var. elegans and Pseudolophozia debiliformis), are new to the Chukotka Autonomous Area. Two of the reported moss species (Funaria arctica and Schistidium umbrosum) are extremely rare. Location data and ecological descriptions for the newly reported species are included
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