842 research outputs found

    Compactification, Vacuum Energy and Quintessence

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    We study the possibility that the vacuum energy density of scalar and internal-space gauge fields arising from the process of dimensional reduction of higher dimensional gravity theories plays the role of quintessence. We show that, for the multidimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills system compactified on a R√óS3√óSdR \times S^3 \times S^d topology, there are classically stable solutions such that the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe at present can be accounted for without upsetting structure formation scenarios or violating observational bounds on the vacuum energy density.Comment: 15 pages, Latex, Third Award in 1999 Essay Competition of the Gravity Research Foundatio

    Dark matter as a dynamic effect due to a non-minimal gravitational coupling with matter

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    In this work the phenomenology of models possessing a non-minimal coupling between matter and geometry is discussed, with a particular focus on the possibility of describing the flattening of the galactic rotation curves as a dynamically generated effect derived from this modification to General Relativity. Two possibilities are discussed: firstly, that the observed discrepancy between the measured rotation velocity and the classical prediction is due to a deviation from geodesic motion, due to a non-(covariant) conservation of the energy-momentum tensor; secondly, that even if the principle of energy conservation holds, the dynamical effects arising due to the non-trivial terms in the Einstein equations of motion can give rise to an extra density contribution that may be interpreted as dark matter. The mechanism of the latter alternative is detailed, and a numerical session ascertaining the order of magnitude of the relevant parameters is undertaken, with possible cosmological implications discussed.Comment: Talk given at First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity, Kolymbari, Greece, 14-18 September 2009

    Naturalness and stability of the generalized Chaplygin gas in the seesaw cosmon scenario

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    The seesaw mechanism is conceived on the basis that a mass scale, őĺ\xi, and a dimensionless scale, ss, can be fine-tuned in order to control the dynamics of active and sterile neutrinos through cosmon-type equations of motion: the seesaw cosmon equations. This allows for sterile neutrinos to be a dark matter candidate. In this scenario, the dynamical masses and energy densities of active and sterile neutrinos can be consistently embedded into the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), the unified dark sector model. In addition, dark matter adiabatically coupled to dark energy allows for a natural decoupling of the (active) mass varying neutrino (MaVaN) component from the dark sector. Thus MaVaN's turn into a secondary effect. Through the scale parameters, őĺ\xi and ss, the proposed scenario allows for a convergence among three distinct frameworks: the cosmon scenario, the seesaw mechanism for mass generation and the GCG model. It is found that the equation of state of the perturbations is the very one of the GCG background cosmology so that all the results from this approach are maintained, being smoothly modified by active neutrinos. Constrained by the seesaw relations, it is shown that the mass varying mechanism is responsible for the stability against linear perturbations and is indirectly related to the late time cosmological acceleration.Comment: 24 pages, 6 figure

    A mission to test the Pioneer anomaly: estimating the main systematic effects

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    We estimate the main systematic effects relevant in a mission to test and characterize the Pioneer anomaly through the flight formation concept, by launching probing spheres from a mother spacecraft and tracking their motion via laser ranging.Comment: 9 pages, 1 table, 2 figures; based on a talk presented by one of us (O.B.) at the 2nd. Pioneer Anomaly Group Meeting at the International Space Science Institute, 19-23 February 200

    Perturbative approach for mass varying neutrinos coupled to the dark sector in the generalized Chaplygin gas scenario

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    We suggest a perturbative approach for generic choices for the universe equation of state and introduce a novel framework for studying mass varying neutrinos (MaVaN's) coupled to the dark sector. For concreteness, we examine the coupling between neutrinos and the underlying scalar field associated with the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), a unification model for dark energy and dark matter. It is shown that the application of a perturbative approach to MaVaN mechanisms translates into a constraint on the coefficient of a linear perturbation, which depends on the ratio between a neutrino energy dependent term and scalar field potential terms. We quantify the effects on the MaVaN sector by considering neutrino masses generated by the seesaw mechanism. After setting the GCG parameters in agreement with general cosmological constraints, we find that the squared speed of sound in the neutrino-scalar GCG fluid is naturally positive. In this scenario, the model stability depends on previously set up parameters associated with the equation of state of the universe. Our results suggest that the GCG is a particularly suitable candidate for constructing a stable MaVaN scenario.Comment: 27 pages, 9 figure

    The Revival of the Unified Dark Energy-Dark Matter Model ?

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    We consider the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and show that it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantom-like dark energy is excluded. Within this framework, we study structure formation and show that difficulties associated to unphysical oscillations or blow-up in the matter power spectrum can be circumvented. Furthermore, we show that the dominance of dark energy is related to the time when energy density fluctuations start deviating from the linear őī‚ąľa\delta \sim a behaviour.Comment: 6 pages, 4 eps figures, Revtex4 style. New References are added. Some typos are corrected. Conclusions remain the sam
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