752 research outputs found

    POLICY options

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    End of project reportThe incomes of Irish cattle farmers benefited greatly from the reform of the CAP for beef and cereals in 1992 and more recently under Agenda 2000. In both of these reforms the institutional support prices were reduced and animal-based direct payments (DPs) were used to compensate farmers for the anticipated market price reductions

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market. Extensification. An Analysis of National and Competitive Issues

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    Working paperThe economic merits of the two Options for extensification under Agenda 2000 were evaluated in relation to their ability to generate revenue and their impact on the competitiveness of Irish cattle farming

    The impact of feed resource costs on the relative competitiveness of beef with other meats

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    End of year reportThese reforms represented a major turning point in fundamental structure of EU agricultural policy. This, at the time of implementation, created much uncertainty at both institutional and farm level in relation to future feed resource costs, cattle and beef prices and related market outlooks. However, as this report shows, the reality for Irish cattle farmers was rather different. As a result much of the research effort during the lifespan of the project was diverted to explaining the causes of the unforeseen outcomes together with the implications of policy decisions and related market developments

    The development of a program of progressive weight resistance exercises for secondary school boys

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    Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University, 1949. This item was digitized by the Internet Archive

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market

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    End of Project ReportThe MacSharry reforms of the CAP in 1992 initiated a major EU policy shift from product price support to a mix of lower prices and increased direct payments (DPs) as the primary method of supporting the income of cattle farmers. The reduction in the support price for beef and the introduction of new and increased DPs were phased in over a three year period up to 1995. In working paper No. 4 it was shown that cattle farmers in Ireland obtain the lowest beef prices in the EU but they also obtain the highest DPs per kilo of beef produced. The DPs are now a major source of revenue for cattle farmers in Ireland. Under the current system of administering DPs for beef, the value of DPs accruing to the individual cattle farmer is dependent on the possession of certain types of animals that are farmed within defined stocking densities. This paper evaluates how the changes have impacted on the margins for the cattle enterprise on the farms in the Teagasc, National Farm Survey (NFS) over the five year period 1993 to 1997. In particular the evaluation focused on: • the trends in the size of gross and net margins for a range of cattle systems • the trends in market based margins • the contribution of DPs to gross and net margins • the distribution of DPs among different types and size of cattl

    Evaluation of supply control options for beef

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    End of project reportThe incomes of Irish cattle farmers benefited greatly from the reform of the CAP for beef and cereals in 1992 and more recently under Agenda 2000. In both of these reforms the institutional support prices were reduced and direct payments (DPs) were used to compensate farmers for the price reduction

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market: An Evaluation of Changes in the EU Intervention system and Labelling Regulations in Relation to Irish Cattle Prices.

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    Working PaperEnd of Project ReportThe intervention system for beef in the EU has undergone major changes since its inception. These changes were introduced because of changing circumstances in the EU beef market and because of cost factors and inefficiencies associated with and arising from the intervention system itself. While justified from these perspectives it can be said that from the perspective of beef producers the system has changed from being a mechanism which aimed at and operated to achieve a producer Guide Price which in turn was defined as “……..the price which it is hoped to attain on average on the Community market for all the quantities marketed during a given marketing year” (Com 370, July 1976) to one which has abandoned all efforts at achieving a desirable producer price and which provides at best very short term stabilisation of price at its market level. The aim of this paper is to trace the major changes which have occurred to the intervention system and the concomitant price achievement of beef in general in the EU and especially that of Irish beef. These changes together with other market and policy factors occurring on and since 1996 have combined to give a historically poor price performance for Irish beef which despite the growing importance of direct payments is still of major significance in the incomes and welfare of beef producers

    Towards realizing best-in-class civil aviation strategy scenarios

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    Developed and less developed countries follow different approaches during the formulation of aviation strategic plans. Additionally, there exists no pre-defined framework to guide developing countries in formulating civil aviation strategies matching their macro-environment and competitiveness levels while addressing their future vision for growth or sustainability. Instead, civil aviation planning over-look these priorities and is often dictated by local political pressures, and mostly influenced by uncoordinated foreign aid assistance. Hence, developing countries use dissimilar and un-structured approaches to reach what is known as "civil aviation master plan" or "draft civil aviation policy". Recognizing that a problem exists in the mechanism for civil aviation planning in this part of the world, research is encouraged to highlight this substantial topic. This paper uses a scenario-based approach to study the roles played by the macro-environment and industry-level performance in realizing best-fit national civil aviation strategies. The goals are achieved through utilizing a two-stage performance benchmarking technique named Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on country level data on a sample of 52 countries in different stages of development, followed by truncated regression. Results of the best performing countries-in terms of output efficiency, indicate that the country's macro-environment and air transport sector's performance serve as guidelines to identify aviation policy elements that are considered to impact efficiency. The regression results indicate that a more liberal air services approach is said to be of positive influence on efficiency levels. Further, we show that private airports are more efficient, while public airports are even less efficient than those with mixed ownership/management model. Hence, policy makers are encouraged to adopt an efficient peer analysis approach based on influential policy elements to bridge performance gaps, achieve better operating capacity, direct and prioritize investments in the civil aviation sector

    Inter-Country Cost Comparisons in Beef.

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    End of Project ReportThe purpose of this study was to: • establish the competitiveness of the Irish beef production systems post the 1992 CAP reform • quantify how Irish beef production costs, and cost components, compare with those for the other EU countries • determine the strengths and weaknesses of the Irish production systems

    Delayed Blanch Phenomenon in Children: Reevaluation Of 5-Year-old Children Originally Tested as Newborns

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    A follow-up study involving 50 children (who were 5 years old) from an original group of 100 who had been tested as newborns was carried out using the delayed blanch phenomenon. The reaction persisted in 78%. No correlation could be found between personal and family history of allergy and the presence or absence of the delayed blanch phenomenon
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