1,183 research outputs found

    Entry into the 'world' in the 18th-century novel

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    In dealing with the youth's entry into the world, one focuses on the adolescent at his most dramatic moment, the transition from boyhood to manhood. He assumes his social being. Polite society, 'the world', is considered the only fit milieu for the young nobleman. Traditionally, his vocation is the world, in which he must uphold the family name, a consideration which influences the choice of the youth's career - either the Army or the Church, the traditional professions of the nobility - in which he is entered solely to further the family's honour and glory, perhaps in spite of his own personal wishes. His career is designed to supply him with the wherewithal necessary to uphold the noble life-style expected of him as a member of an ancient noble house. The parvenu has sufficient wealth to adopt the noble way of living, but he is generally presented as an outsider in polite society in which he figures as a boor. Nonetheless, the parvenu seeks above all else to be integrated into the privileged circle of polite society. The young peasant or bourgeois who wishes to rise in life sets ennoblement and acceptance within the noble circle as his goal. He frequently achieves his aim through the attraction he holds for women of greater rank and fortune than himself. He is allowed to succeed through women, but only if he humbly accepts the noble's supposed superiority. Woman plays an important role in the youth's education for the world, whether he is of noble or bourgeois extraction. Her traditional vocation is to help man, for she herself is of but secondary importance. And it is very rare that she revolts against the accepted pattern. For conformity is the keynote of harmony in 18th-century polite society. The youth is cast in a stereotyped mould as a young gentleman and he is expected to conform to traditional values and ideals. Similarly, his female counterpart and the young of humbler parentage are also conditioned to accept their roles within the social structure. Those characteristics which assimilate one to one's fellows in society must be developed; those which tend to the cult of the individual must be suppressed. It is from this insistence on the necessity of accepting polite society that arises the notion of the individual. This is the adolescent's revolt against society.<p

    Reproductive Biology of Amblema neislerii, Elliptoideus sloatianus, Lampsilis subangulata, Medionidus penicillatus, and Pleurobema pyriforme (Bivalvia: Unionidae): final report

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    A study on the reproductive biology of Amblema neislerii, Elliptoideus sloatianus, Lampsilis subangulata, Medionidus penicillatus, and Pleurobema pyriforme was conducted from May 1995 to May 1997. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) determine period of gravidity for each of the five mussel species, 2) determine host fish via laboratory experiments, 3) test whether unionid glochidia will transform on a nonidingenous fish, and 4) describe the glochidial morphology for each of the five mussel species using a scanning electron microscope. Amblema neislerii are tachytictic breeders and were found with mature glochidia in May. Elliptoideus sloatianus are tachytictic breeders and were found with mature glochidia from late February to early April. Lampsilis subangulata are bradytictic breeders and were found with mature glochidia from December to August. Superconglutinates were released by L. subangulata from late May to early July. Medionidus penicillatus are bradytictic breeders and were found with mature glochidia in November and February to April. Pleurobema pyriforme are tachytictic breeders and were found with mature glochidia from March to July. The following fish species served as hosts for A. neislerii: Notropis texanus, Lepomis macrochirus, L. microlophus, Micropterus salmoides, and Percina nigrofasciata. The following fish species served as hosts for E. sloatianus: Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, and P. nigrofasciata. The following fish species served as hosts for L. subangulata: G. holbrooki, P. reticulata, L. macrochirus, Micropterus punctulatus, and M. salmoides. The following fish species served as hosts for M. penicillatus: G. holbrooki, P. reticulata, Etheostoma edwini, and P. nigrofasciata. The following fish species served as hosts for P. pyriforme: Pteronotropis hypselopterus, G. holbrooki, and P. reticulata. Poecilia reticulata, a nonindigenous fish, served as a host for E. sloatianus, L. subangulata, M. penicillatus, and P. pyriforme. (76 page document

    Exercise Participation in Parkinson's Disease: A Qualitative Study

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    Exercise and physiotherapy improve mobility and health-related quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and exercise is now an important component of disease management. People may live with PD for many years and to maximise the benefits of exercise, individuals need to participate in exercise regularly. People with PD have a range of motor and non-motor impairments that could impact on exercise participation but there is limited evidence about the factors that influence exercise participation in this population. It is important for physiotherapists to understand these factors so that exercise programs can be developed to encourage uptake and sustain participation. A qualitative study explored the experience of 8 participants who were variously successful in a semi-supervised, 6-month falls prevention exercise program. The aim was to understand the participants’ meaning of exercise and how factors influencing exercise participation interact and impact on decisions made about whether to exercise or not. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. It was found that, for this group, exercise participation assisted in reframing identity as individuals are faced with losses associated with ageing and PD. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified: the non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, a belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. Decisions about whether to exercise were the result of a dynamic process of evaluation by the participants in which goals were crucial. A model was developed to explain the interaction of factors involved in making decisions regarding exercise participation. This thesis contains information on how individual factors interact and influence exercise participation in these individuals with PD, suggestions on how to address these in the clinical setting and offers directions for further research

    Exercise Participation in Parkinson's Disease: A Qualitative Study

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    Exercise and physiotherapy improve mobility and health-related quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and exercise is now an important component of disease management. People may live with PD for many years and to maximise the benefits of exercise, individuals need to participate in exercise regularly. People with PD have a range of motor and non-motor impairments that could impact on exercise participation but there is limited evidence about the factors that influence exercise participation in this population. It is important for physiotherapists to understand these factors so that exercise programs can be developed to encourage uptake and sustain participation. A qualitative study explored the experience of 8 participants who were variously successful in a semi-supervised, 6-month falls prevention exercise program. The aim was to understand the participants’ meaning of exercise and how factors influencing exercise participation interact and impact on decisions made about whether to exercise or not. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. It was found that, for this group, exercise participation assisted in reframing identity as individuals are faced with losses associated with ageing and PD. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified: the non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, a belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. Decisions about whether to exercise were the result of a dynamic process of evaluation by the participants in which goals were crucial. A model was developed to explain the interaction of factors involved in making decisions regarding exercise participation. This thesis contains information on how individual factors interact and influence exercise participation in these individuals with PD, suggestions on how to address these in the clinical setting and offers directions for further research

    Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers

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    Background: Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO) are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible interventions appropriate to the social and community service setting. Methods: Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with clients attending five community welfare organisations located in New South Wales, Australia. Thirty-two clients participated in six focus groups. A discussion guide was used to explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking and smoking cessation including: current smoking behaviour, motivation to quit, past quit attempts, barriers to quitting and preferences for cessation support. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis techniques. Results: Participants were current smokers and most expressed a desire to quit. Factors predisposing continued smoking included perceived benefits of smoking for stress relief, doubting of ability to quit, fear of gaining weight, and poor knowledge and scepticism about available quit support. The high cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use. Continual exposure to smoking in personal relationships and in the community reinforced smoking. Participants expressed a strong preference for personalised quit support. Conclusions: Disadvantaged smokers in Australia express a desire to quit smoking, but find quitting difficult for a number of reasons. SCSOs may have a role in providing information about the availability of quit support, engaging disadvantaged smokers with available quit support, and providing personalised, ongoing support

    New Ideas for Motivating and Engaging Science Undergraduates in a Context-Based Learning Environment: Enhancing the Transition From University Classroom to Professional Practice.

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    Textbook-based instruction with a strong focus on comprehensive coverage of content delivered in a traditional lecture format has been the mainstay of most undergraduate medical microbiology teaching approaches. Laboratory classes, when conducted, are often an add-on and as such students view as disparate what should be integrated components. In developing a capstone unit in the Medical Laboratory Science program at QUT we have implemented a number of strategies which have bridged the gap between the lecture 'content' experience and the practice of medical microbiology. As a result we have seen not only a transformation in the learning experiences of our students, but in the way we teach as well. To begin with, the objective is not to cover every aspect of content, but to ensure that the students connect in such a way that they are both informed and engaged. Underpinning this strategy is the development and refinement of critical thinking and complex reasoning skills to a high degree. Both are important for these capstone students if they are to successfully transition into professional clinical practice, industry or research where such skills are not only highly valued, but an integral part of daily work practices. A formal lecture format where facts are conveyed in a one-dimensional way has been replaced by an informal tutorialstyle setting where students are encouraged both to answer questions and to ask questions related to the topic under discussion and to the case scenario(s) which are posed. Case scenarios reinforce and challenge the student's fundamental knowledge and understanding of medical microbiology while promoting critical-thinking and complex reasoning skills. One novel approach is the use of a "role playing exercise" where students assume the role of a general practitioner and the lecturer is a patient in their consulting room. This exercise explores both the key concept of patient presentation and reinforces the role and importance of the diagnostic microbiologist in infectious disease diagnosis. As part of this active learning engagement, students compile a Report Form and in doing so not only sleuthe out the identity of the diseasecausing agent, but provide recommendations for patient management and further follow-up. Instructor feedback is embedded into the Report Form so that the student can be provided with immediate feedback on their progress. Technology integration is also a valuable part of a context-based learning environment, especially since the workplace is technology-driven. We are developing an electronic resource of digital images/video which visually replicates many of the media, reagents, equipment and techniques used in a routine microbiology laboratory. In our approach, learning experiences are scaffolded upon the "lecture-laboratory continuum". This integration is supported by a "Learning and Teaching Guide" which is part of the student's instructional toolkit. Underpinning the pedagogy is an emphasis on developing skills and attributes directly applicable to the workplace (e.g., pathology or research laboratories) or career pathways (e.g., postgraduate medicine) of these particular students. Many of the strategies used successfully in our approach could be readily translated to other science streams

    The use of case studies in OR teaching

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    This article investigates the current use of case studies in the teaching of Operational Research (OR) in the UK: how and where they are used; how they are developed; and whether there is an interest in training this area. It is aimed at lecturers teaching OR who are using or planning to use case studies in their teaching. It may also be of interest to policy-makers who wish to know what is being done in OR. The article focuses on the results of a survey sent to lecturers of OR in higher education in the UK. These are combined with an examination of the literature on using case studies in teaching in general and a small number of specific examples of how case studies are used in OR teaching. Case studies are included in OR teaching in a variety of ways and to develop a range of skills; particularly the ability to transfer academic knowledge to real-life contexts. The article identifies that the most significant barrier to the use of case studies in OR teaching is the development of new case studies; suggestions are made to address this, including providing training and collaboration opportunities. Overall this article provides an assessment of the ways in which case studies are used in OR; the advantages and limitationsof using them; and specific examples of their use which will provide ideas to assist in improving OR teaching

    An overview of quality management system implementation in a research laboratory

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    The aim of this paper is to show the advantages of implementing a Quality Management System (QMS) in a research laboratory in order to improve the management of risks specific to research programmes and to increase the reliability of results. This paper also presents experience gained from feedback following the implementation of the Quality process in a research laboratory at INRA, the French National Institute for Agronomic Research and details the various challenges encountered and solutions proposed to help achieve smoother adoption of a QMS process. The 7Ms (Management, Measurement, Manpower, Methods, Materials, Machinery, Mother-nature) methodology based on the Ishikawa 'Fishbone' diagram is used to show the effectiveness of the actions considered by a QMS, which involve both the organization and the activities of the laboratory. Practical examples illustrate the benefits and improvements observed in the laboratory

    Mapping Science Subjects: A Ground Up Approach

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    The need to clearly demonstrate the components and outcomes of a curriculum is a major factor in the drive for quality assurance manifest across the tertiary education sector. This project is a detailed gathering of commentary and data about the subjects offered in the Faculty of Science, UOW. The project aims to provide a means of tracking concept and skill development through curricula, to identify sharable resources and teaching practice, to clarify support needs and to provide a means for storing and maintaining an ongoing record of commentary and data about each subject. The investigative approach is a type of curriculum mapping based on interviews with key players in the design, delivery and reception of the curriculum. In the process all available materials and data about each subject were gathered. The methodology has been developed and used first for mapping of subjects within the School of Chemistry, providing a tested and flexible process to facilitate the investigation in the other Schools in the faculty. For Chemistry subjects a dataset of information is now available from which developments in curriculum and teaching management are proceeding. From staff and student interviews and our collective experience we can also report valuable commentary

    Extended difficulties with counterfactuals persist in reasoning with false beliefs: Evidence for Teleology-in-Perspective

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    Increasing evidence suggests that counterfactual reasoning is involved in false belief reasoning. Because existing work is correlational we developed a manipulation that revealed a signature of counterfactual reasoning in participants’ answers to false belief questions. In two experiments we tested 3- to 14-year-olds and found high positive correlations (r = .56 and r = .73) between counterfactual and false belief questions. Children were very likely to respond to both questions with the same answer, also committing the same type of error. We discuss different theories and their ability to account for each aspect of our findings and conclude that reasoning about others’ beliefs and actions requires similar cognitive processes as using counterfactual suppositions. Our findings question the explanatory power of the traditional frameworks, theory theory and simulation theory, in favour of views that explicitly provide for a relationship between false belief reasoning and counterfactual reasoning
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