17 research outputs found

    Effect of traditional processing methods on protein digestibility and chemical constituents in seeds of Bauhinia petersiana

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    Background: Antinutritional factors present in food may reduce the bioavailability of nutrients and cause harmful effects to human health. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of traditional processing methods on protein digestibility, nutrient and antinutrient constituents of seeds of Bauhinia petersiana. Subjects and Methods: The seeds were processed by soaking in water, boiling or roasting before analyzing protein digestibility, nutrient and antinutrient compositions. Results: Soaking resulted in no significant changes in the content of moisture, protein, fiber, phytates and trypsin inhibitor activity and significant reductions in fat, ash and tannins. Roasting resulted in no significant change in the content of moisture, ash, protein, and fiber and significant reductions in fat, phytates and trypsin inhibitor activity. Boiling resulted in a significant increase in the content of both protein and fiber and reduction in fat, ash, tannins, phytates and trypsin inhibitor activity. Mineral content of zinc, magnesium and calcium was not changed by soaking, roasting or boiling of the seeds. The calculated phytate: zinc molar ratios for both the raw and processed seeds were greater than 10, the limit for optimal absorption of zinc in the small intestine whereas phytate: iron molar ratios were less than 14, the limit for optimum absorption of iron in the intestines. In vitro digestibility of proteins in the seeds was increased when the seeds were soaked, roasted or boiled. Conclusions: Boiling the seeds of B. petersiana before consumption would effectively remove undesirable antinutrients while maintaining the nutrient content of the seeds and improving digestibility of proteins

    Transforming gender relations through the use of hermetic technology

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    French version available in IDRC Digital LibraryUnequal power relations between men and women influence the adoption and impact of new agricultural technologies at the household level, therefore efforts were made to ensure initiatives intervened in a gender-just manner. Due to this study implementation, household awareness of aflatoxins and their management increased among women from 36% (2015) to 99% (2016). Such knowledge has reduced fungal outbreaks during storage from 44% to 6%. Hermetic metal silos are cylindrical structures constructed from galvanized iron sheets and hermetically sealed. The technology eliminates oxygen, thereby killing insect pests. Hermetic bags are made from multi-layer recyclable polyethylene plastic.Cultivate Africa’s Future Fund (CULTIAF

    Comparative performance of five hermetic bag brands during on-farm smallholder cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp) storage

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    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) grain is an important source of protein for smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, cowpea grains are highly susceptible to bruchid attack, resulting in high quantitative and qualitative postharvest losses (PHLs). We evaluated the performance of five different hermetic bag brands for cowpea grain storage in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe (Guruve and Mbire districts) for an 8-month storage period during the 2017/18 and 2018/19 storage seasons. The hermetic bag treatments evaluated included: GrainPro Super Grain bags (SGB) IVR™; PICS bags; AgroZ® Ordinary bags; AgroZ® Plus bags; ZeroFly® hermetic bags. These were compared to untreated grain in a polypropylene bag (negative control) and Actellic Gold Dust® (positive chemical control). All treatments were housed in farmers’ stores and were subjected to natural insect infestation. Hermetic bag treatments were significantly superior (p< 0.001) to non-hermetic storage in limiting grain damage, weight loss and insect population development during storage. However, rodent control is recommended, as rodent attack rendered some hermetic bags less effective. Actellic Gold Dust® was as effective as the hermetic bags. Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic.) populations increased within eight weeks of storage commencement, causing high damage and losses in both quality and quantity, with highest losses recorded in the untreated control. Cowpea grain stored in Mbire district sustained significantly higher insect population and damage than Guruve district which is ascribed to differences in environmental conditions. The parasitic wasp, Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) was suppressed by Actellic Gold Dust® and all hermetic treatments. All the hermetic bag brands tested are recommended for smallholder farmer use in reducing PHLs while enhancing environmental and worker safety, and food and nutrition security

    Chemopreventive Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Combined Leaf Extracts of Sesamum angustifolium (Oliv.) Engl. and Hibiscus articulatus on Rhabdomyosarcoma

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    Sesamum angustifolium (Oliv.) Engl. and Hibiscus articulatus contain compounds that have antimutagenic properties. The rise in rhabdomyosarcoma in paediatrics and prognosis of the disease in infants compared to adults calls for newer, less toxic alternatives in treatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the anticancer activity and antioxidant capacity of combined leaf extracts of Sesamum angustifolium (Oliv.) Engl. and Hibiscus articulatus (SAHA), against rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) using rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line and mouse (L20B) cell line. Cytotoxicity, morphology, apoptosis induction, and antioxidant capacity assays were done. Of the four solvents used for extraction, the dichloromethane SAHA extract was the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 106 μg/mL after doxorubicin, the reference anticancer drug with IC50 of 0.8 μg/mL. The SAHA extracts had a stronger cytotoxicity effect on the cancerous RD cells than on normal L20B cells. Morphological assessment showed untreated cells maintained their normal striated appearance of muscle cells whereas cells treated with doxorubicin or SAHA extracts exhibited cell shrinkage, loss of surface adherence, reduced cell density along with cell debris, which is a characteristic of apoptosis. Normal L20B cells when treated with doxorubicin or SAHA extracts, maintained their cell shape, and remained adherent to the surface. The apoptotic enzyme caspase-3 was induced in a concentration dependent manner upon treatment of the RD cells with SAHA extracts or doxorubicin. Induction of caspase-3 was ten times less in treated L20B cells compared to the RD cells. Low induction of caspase-9 enzyme was observed in both treated RD and L20B cells. Treatment of both RD and L20B cells with SAHA extracts or doxorubicin resulted in increased activity of peroxidase and reduction of oxidative stress. Results of the study show that the SAHA extracts are potential sources of compounds that may serve as useful agents for treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma

    Food safety culture assessment using a comprehensive mixed-methods approach : A comparative study in dairy processing organisations in an emerging economy

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    Food safety challenges are a global concern especially in emerging economies, which are in the midst of developmental changes. The challenges are directly or indirectly related to the behaviour and decision-making of personnel, and to an organisation's food safety culture. This study evaluated the prevailing food safety culture in three Zimbabwean dairy companies of different size (multinational, large and medium) using a comprehensive mixed-methods approach. Four key elements were assessed, namely enabling conditions, employee characteristics, actual behaviour and microbial safety performance. Card-aided interviews provided data on enabling conditions, and questionnaires and storytelling on employee characteristics. Observations and microbial analysis assessed actual behaviour and microbial safety performance, respectively. The multinational company demonstrated a more proactive food safety culture compared to the other companies, which operated at an active level as exhibited by multiple inconsistencies in the enabling conditions and compliance behaviour. The large company had a moderate microbial safety performance even though it operated in a potentially risky situation, which could have been mitigated by the food safety management system. The medium-sized company had a poor microbial safety performance likely related to noncompliance with sanitation requirements, negative attitudes towards personal hygiene and an ambivalent attitude towards sanitation. Our study demonstrated the ability of the mixed-methods approach to assess and distinguish an organisation's prevailing food safety culture into identified classification levels (reactive, active, proactive). Specifically, storytelling elicited respondents to share stories, which reflected the food safety and hygiene control attitudes

    Improvement of traditional processing of local monkey orange (Strychnos spp.) fruits to enhance nutrition security in Zimbabwe

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    Although the monkey orange (Strychnos spp.) tree fruit is widely distributed in Southern Africa and particularly in Zimbabwe, it is underutilized and little attention has been given to its potential commercialisation due to limited knowledge and information. Most of the fruits and their products are wasted because of limited harvest time, process control and storage conditions, leading to variability in shelf life and sensory quality, thereby impacting nutritional quality. Traditional processing techniques make insufficient use of this food resource within rural communities. This study aimed at identifying the existing bottlenecks by means of a survey among 102 smallholder farming respondents in the wet and dry regions of Zimbabwe. Results revealed that S. cocculoides and S. spinosa were used by 48% of respondents as a functional ingredient in porridge, by 25% in fermented mahewu drink and by 15% of respondents as a non-alcoholic juice. The fruits of S. innocua and S. madagascariensis are preferably processed into dried products. Taste, flavour and colour were the important quality characteristics for all processed products, and constraints to be solved are seed-flesh separation, long processing times, separation of juice and pulp during storage as well as pulp viscosity. Respondents reported monkey orange products to have health benefits for children and immune-compromised people, who, on regular consumption, have reportedly increased weight and resistance to disease. The positive perception about the processed products of Strychnos spp. offer a good opportunity to improve nutrition security by capitalizing on these not-yet-fully-exploited resources, but technological solutions to improve sensory quality and shelf life must be developed.</p