456 research outputs found

    Long-Term Durum Wheat-Based Cropping Systems Result in the Rapid Saturation of Soil Carbon in the Mediterranean Semi-arid Environment

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    Climate, soil physical-chemical characteristics, land management, and carbon (C) input from crop residues greatly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. According to the concept of SOC saturation, the ability of SOC to increase with C input decreases as SOC increases and approaches a SOC saturation level. In a 12-year experiment, six semi-arid cropping systems characterized by different rates of C input to soil were compared for ability to sequester SOC, SOC saturation level, and the time necessary to reach the SOC saturation level. SOC stocks, soil aggregate sizes, and C inputs were measured in durum wheat monocropping with (Ws) and without (W) return of aboveground residue to the soil and in the following cropping systems without return of aboveground residue to soil: durum wheat/fallow (Wfall), durum wheat/berseem clover, durum wheat/barley/faba bean, and durum wheat/Hedysarum coronarium. The C sequestration rate and SOC content were lowest in Wfall plots but did not differ among the other cropping systems. The C sequestration rate ranged from 0.47MgC ha-1y-1 in Ws plots to 0.66MgCha-1y-1 in W plots but was negative (-0.06MgCha-1y-1) in Wfall plots. Increases in SOC were related to C input up to a SOC saturation value; over this value, further C inputs did not lead to SOC increase. Across all cropping systems, the C saturation value for the experimental soil was 57.7Mgha-1, which was reached with a cumulative C input of 15Mgha-1

    Cathepsins B and D drive hepatic stellate cell proliferation and promote their fibrogenic potential

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    El pdf del artículo es el manuscrito de autor.-- PubMed: PMCID:PMC2670444Cathepsins have been best characterized in tumorigenesis and cell death and implicated in liver fibrosis; however, whether cathepsins directly regulate hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and proliferation, hence modulating their fibrogenic potential, is largely unknown. Here, we show that expression of cathepsin B (CtsB) and cathepsin D (CtsD) is negligible in quiescent HSCs but parallels the increase of -smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- during in vitro mouse HSC activation. Both cathepsins are necessary for HSC transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts, because their silencing or inhibition decreasedHSC proliferation and the expression of phenotypicmarkers ofHSC activation, with similar results observed with the human HSC cell line LX2. CtsB inhibition blunted AKT phosphorylation in activated HSCs in response to platelet-derived growth factor.Moreover, during in vivo liver fibrogenesis caused by CCl4 administration, CtsB expression increased in HSCs but not in hepatocytes, and its inactivation mitigated CCl4-induced inflammation, HSC activation, and collagen deposition. Conclusion: These findings support a critical role for cathepsins inHSC activation, suggesting that the antagonismof cathepsins inHSCsmay be of relevance for the treatment of liver fibrosis.Financial support: The work was supported by CIBEREHD and grant PI070193 (Instituto de Salud Carlos III); by grant SAF2006-06780 (Plan Nacional de I+D), Spain; and by grant P50-AA-11999 (Research Center for Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism).Peer reviewe

    Positive Surgical Margins After Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies

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    Objective: We performed an update of previous reviews of the literature to provide an overview on incidence, predictive factors, management and prognosis of positive surgical margins (PSMs) after partial nephrectomy (PN) including recent surgical series and studies comparing different approaches and techniques. Material and methods: A literature search was performed from January 2013 to January 2018 using the Medline database. The search strategy included a free-text protocol using the term "nephron-sparing surgery" OR "partial nephrectomy" AND "positive surgical margins" across the title and abstract fields of the records. From each selected study, we extracted the following data: number of analyzed patients, study design, approach and surgical technique used, PSMs rate, pathological features, type of PSMs treatment, mean (median) follow-up duration and final patient status. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software v. 5.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Results: We selected a total of 36 (48%) studies. All studies were retrospective and the best statistical method used for comparison was the matched-pair analysis (level 4). Overall, 45,786 patients treated with PN were included in the selected studies. PSMs were reported in a total of 3,093 (6.7%) patients. The mean estimated PSMs rate was 7%, 5% and 4.3% in patients who underwent robot-assisted PN (RAPN), laparoscopic PN (LPN) and open PN (OPN), respectively. Comparative studies showed a significant advantage in favor of OPN compared with minimally invasive approach, while RAPN showed more favourable PSMs risk compared with LPN (odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence intervals 2.05–4.45). No differences were detected stratifying data according to other surgical or tumor-related factors. Tumor size, nuclear grading and pT3a stage represent the most important predictors of PSMs. In 6,809 patients, follow-up data were available. Only 101 (1.4%) local recurrences and 88 (1.3%) distant recurrences were observed both in PSMs and negative surgical margins subgroups. PSMs were associated with a significant increased risk of local recurrence with a significant impact on local recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival. However, a significant impact on cancer-specific and overall survival could not be demonstrated. Conclusions: Studies published in the last 5 years confirmed that PSMs after PN are a rare condition. Although PSMs increase the risk of local and distant recurrence, their influence on cancer-specific and overall survival seems to be limited. Close surveillance should be strongly recommended as initial treatment of patients with PSMs after PN

    Tolterodine extended release in the treatment of male oab/storage luts: A systematic review

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    Overactive bladder (OAB)/ storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a high prevalence affecting up to 90\% of men over 80 years. The role of sufficient therapies appears crucial. In the present review, we analyzed the mechanism of action of tolterodine extended-release (ER) with the aim to clarify its efficacy and safety profile, as compared to other active treatments of OAB/storage LUTS.A wide Medline search was performed including the combination of following words: "LUTS", "BPH", "OAB", "antimuscarinic", "tolterodine", "tolterodine ER". IPSS, IPSS storage sub-score and IPSS QoL (International Prostate Symptom Score) were the validated efficacy outcomes. In addition, the numbers of urgency episodes/24 h, urgency incontinence episodes/24 h, incontinence episodes/24 h and pad use were considered. We also evaluated the most common adverse events (AEs) reported for tolterodine ER.Of 128 retrieved articles, 109 were excluded. The efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine ER Vs. tolterodine IR have been evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study in 1529 patients with OAB. A 71\% mean reduction in urgency incontinence episodes was found in the tolterodine ER group compared to a 60\% reduction in the tolterodine IR (p 29 cc) only the combination therapy significantly reduced 24-h voiding frequency (2.8 vs. 1.7 with tamsulosin, 1.4 with tolterodine, or 1.6 with placebo). A recent meta-analysis evaluating tolterodine in comparison with other antimuscarinic drugs demonstrated that tolterodine ER was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing micturition/24 h, urinary leakage episodes/24 h, urgency episodes/24 h, and urgency incontinence episodes/24 h. With regard to adverse events, tolterodine ER was associated with a good adverse event profile resulting in the third most favorable antimuscarinic. Antimuscarinic drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for OAB / storage LUTS; several studies have demonstrated that tolterodine ER is an effective and well tolerated formulation of this class of treatment.Tolterodine ER resulted effective in reducing frequency urgency and nocturia and urinary leakage in male patients with OAB/storage LUTS. Dry mouth and constipation are the most frequently reported adverse events

    Concomitant Carcinoma in situ in Cystectomy Specimens Is Not Associated with Clinical Outcomes after Surgery

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    Objective: The aim of this study was to externally validate the prognostic value of concomitant urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) in radical cystectomy (RC) specimens using a large international cohort of bladder cancer patients. Methods: The records of 3,973 patients treated with RC and bilateral lymphadenectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) at nine centers worldwide were reviewed. Surgical specimens were evaluated by a genitourinary pathologist at each center. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression models addressed time to recurrence and cancer-specific mortality after RC. Results: 1,741 (43.8%) patients had concomitant CIS in their RC specimens. Concomitant CIS was more common in organ-confined UCB and was associated with lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001). Concomitant CIS was not associated with either disease recurrence or cancer-specific death regardless of pathologic stage. The presence of concomitant CIS did not improve the predictive accuracy of standard predictors for either disease recurrence or cancer-specific death in any of the subgroups. Conclusions: We could not confirm the prognostic value of concomitant CIS in RC specimens. This, together with the discrepancy between pathologists in determining the presence of concomitant CIS at the morphologic level, limits the clinical utility of concomitant CIS in RC specimens for clinical decision-making. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Base

    PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores correlate with perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: analysis of the Vattikuti Global Quality Initiative in Robotic Urologic Surgery (GQI-RUS) database

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    Objectives: To evaluate and compare the correlations between Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) and R.E.N.A.L. [Radius (tumour size as maximal diameter), Exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumour, Nearness of tumour deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, Anterior (a)/posterior (p) descriptor and the Location relative to the polar line] nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications in a multicentre, international series of patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for masses suspicious for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical records of patients who underwent RAPN between 2010 and 2013 for clinical N0M0 renal tumours in four international centres that completed all the data required for the Vattikuti Global Quality Initiative in Robotic Urologic Surgery (GQI-RUS) database. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to define the clinical stage and anatomical characteristics of the tumours. PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. scores were retrospectively assessed in each centre. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the correlations between age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, clinical tumour size, PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. complexity group categories and warm ischaemia time (WIT) of >20 min, urinary calyceal system closure, and grade of postoperative complications. Results: Overall, 277 patients were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) tumour size was 33.0 (22.0\u201343.0) mm. The median PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. scores were eight and seven, respectively; 112 (40.4%), 86 (31.0%) and 79 (28.5%) patients were classified in the low-, intermediate- or high-complexity group according to PADUA score, while 118 (42.5%), 139 (50.1%) and 20 (7.2%) were classified in the low-, intermediate- or high-complexity group according to R.E.N.A.L. score, respectively. Both nephrometry tools significantly correlated with perioperative outcomes at univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusion: A precise stratification of patients before PN is recommended to consider both the potential threats and benefits of nephron-sparing surgery. In our present analysis, both PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. were significantly associated with predicting prolonged WIT and high-grade postoperative complications after RAP

    Urology practice during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign

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    The current scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic is significantly different from that of the first, emergency phase. Several countries in the world are experiencing a second, or even a third, wave of contagion, while awaiting the effects of mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this report was to provide an update of previously released recommendations on prioritization and restructuring of urological activities
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