837 research outputs found

    Improving Robustness of Jet Tagging Algorithms with Adversarial Training

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    Deep learning is a standard tool in the field of high-energy physics, facilitating considerable sensitivity enhancements for numerous analysis strategies. In particular, in identification of physics objects, such as jet flavor tagging, complex neural network architectures play a major role. However, these methods are reliant on accurate simulations. Mismodeling can lead to non-negligible differences in performance in data that need to be measured and calibrated against. We investigate the classifier response to input data with injected mismodelings and probe the vulnerability of flavor tagging algorithms via application of adversarial attacks. Subsequently, we present an adversarial training strategy that mitigates the impact of such simulated attacks and improves the classifier robustness. We examine the relationship between performance and vulnerability and show that this method constitutes a promising approach to reduce the vulnerability to poor modeling.Comment: 17 pages, 16 figures, 2 tables. Replaced with the published version. Added the journal reference and the DOI. Code accessible under https://github.com/AnnikaStein/Adversarial-Training-for-Jet-Taggin

    Origin of the Verwey transition in magnetite: Group theory, electronic structure, and lattice dynamics study

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    The Verwey phase transition in magnetite has been analyzed using the group theory methods. It is found that two order parameters with the symmetries X3X_3 and Δ5\Delta_5 induce the structural transformation from the high-temperature cubic to the low-temperature monoclinic phase. The coupling between the order parameters is described by the Landau free energy functional. The electronic and crystal structure for the cubic and monoclinic phases were optimized using the {\it ab initio} density functional method. The electronic structure calculations were performed within the generalized gradient approximation including the on-site interactions between 3d electrons at iron ions -- the Coulomb element UU and Hund's exchange JJ. Only when these local interactions are taken into account, the phonon dispersion curves, obtained by the direct method for the cubic phase, reproduce the experimental data. It is shown that the interplay of local electron interations and the coupling to the lattice drives the phonon order parameters and is responsible for the opening of the gap at the Fermi energy. Thus, it is found that the metal-insulator transition in magnetite is promoted by local electron interactions, which significantly amplify the electron-phonon interaction and stabilize weak charge order coexisting with orbital order of the occupied t2gt_{2g} states at Fe ions. This provides a scenario to understand the fundamental problem of the origin of the Verwey transition in magnetite.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figures, 8 tables. Accepted version to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Spectroscopic Studies of Intramolecular Proton Transfer in 2-(4-Fluorophenylamino)-5-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzeno)-1,3,4-Thiadiazole

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    Spectroscopic studies of the biologically active compound 2-(4-fluorophenylamino)-5-(2,4-dihydroxybenzeno)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (FABT), have been performed. Absorption studies in the UV-Vis region for FABT in polar solvents, like water or ethanol, exhibit the domination of the enol form over its keto counterpart, with a broad absorption band centered around 340 nm. In non-polar solvents such as n-heptane or heavier alkanes the 340 nm absorption band disappears and an increase of the band related to the keto form (approximately 270 nm) is observed. Fluorescence spectra (with 270 nm and 340 nm excitation energies used) show a similar dependence: for FABT in 2-propanol a peak at about 400 nm dominates over that at 330 nm while in n-heptane this relation is reversed. The solvent dependent equilibrium between the keto and enol forms is further confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. As can be expected, this equilibrium also shows some temperature dependences. We note that the changes between the two tautomeric forms of FABT are not related to the permanent dipole moment of the solvent but rather to its dipole polarizability

    A database of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins for use in clinical applications

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    Owing to its availability, ease of collection and correlation with (patho-) physiology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics. However, the lack of comparable datasets from large cohorts has greatly hindered development in this field. Here we report the establishment of a high resolution proteome database of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins - ranging from 800-17,000 Da - from over 3,600 individual samples using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, yielding an average of 1,500 peptides per sample. All processed data were deposited in an SQL database, currently containing 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases, including kidney and vascular diseases. Of these, 352 have been sequenced to date. To demonstrate the applicability of this database, two examples of disease diagnosis were provided: For renal damage diagnosis, patients with a specific renal disease were identified with high specificity and sensitivity in a blinded cohort of 131 individuals. We further show definition of biomarkers specific for immunosuppression and complications after transplantation (Kaposi's sarcoma). Due to its high information content, this database will be a powerful tool for the validation of biomarkers for both renal and non-renal diseases

    Involvement of toll-like receptor 9 polymorphism in cervical cancer development

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    The role played by the polymorphism located in Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) as a risk factor of cervical cancer remains elusive. Therefore, we studied the association of the TLR9 −1486 T/C (rs187084) and C2848T (rs352140) polymorphisms with cervical cancer. The TLR9 −1486 T/C and C2848T polymorphism was genotyped in 426 patients and 460 unrelated healthy females from the Polish population. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, tobacco smoking, and menopausal status showed that both the TLR9 −1486 T/C and C2848T polymorphisms could be a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer. For the TLR9 −1486 T/C polymorphism, the adjusted OR for patients with the C/T genotype versus T/T genotype was 1.371 (95 % CI 1.021–1.842, p = 0.0361), the adjusted OR for the C/C genotype vs the T/T genotype was 1.300 (95 % CI 1.016–1.507, p = 0.0096), and the adjusted OR for the C/T or C/C genotype vs the T/T genotype was 1.448 (95 % CI 1.099–1.908, p = 0.0083). For the C2848T polymorphism, the adjusted OR for patients with the C/T genotype vs C/C genotype was 1.443 (95 % CI 1.019–2.043, p = 0.0380), the adjusted OR for the T/T genotype vs the C/C genotype was 1.237 (95 % CI 1.016–1.507, p = 0.0328), and the adjusted OR for the T/C or T/T genotype vs the C/C genotype was 1.345 (95 % CI 0.976–1.855, p = 0.0700). Our studies suggest that the TLR9 −1486 T/C and C2848T polymorphisms may be a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer

    Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model in Events with Overlapping Photons and Jets

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    Results are reported from a search for new particles that decay into a photon and two gluons, in events with jets. Novel jet substructure techniques are developed that allow photons to be identified in an environment densely populated with hadrons. The analyzed proton-proton collision data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in 2016 at root s = 13 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The spectra of total transverse hadronic energy of candidate events are examined for deviations from the standard model predictions. No statistically significant excess is observed over the expected background. The first cross section limits on new physics processes resulting in such events are set. The results are interpreted as upper limits on the rate of gluino pair production, utilizing a simplified stealth supersymmetry model. The excluded gluino masses extend up to 1.7 TeV, for a neutralino mass of 200 GeV and exceed previous mass constraints set by analyses targeting events with isolated photons.Peer reviewe

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV