6,136 research outputs found

    The dwarf low surface brightness population in different environments of the Local Universe

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    The nature of the dwarf galaxy population as a function of location in the cluster and within different environments is investigated. We have previously described the results of a search for low surface brightness objects in data drawn from an East-West strip of the Virgo cluster (Sabatini et al., 2003) and have compared this to a large area strip outside of the cluster (Roberts et al., 2004). In this talk I compare the East-West data (sampling sub-cluster A and outward) to new data along a North-South cluster strip that samples a different region (part of sub-cluster A, and the N,M clouds) and with data obtained for the Ursa Major cluster and fields around the spiral galaxy M101. The sample of dwarf galaxies in different environments is obtained from uniform datasets that reach central surface brightness values of ~26 B mag/arcsec^2 and an apparent B magnitude of 21 (M_B=-10 for a Virgo Cluster distance of 16 Mpc). We discuss and interpret our results on the properties and distribution of dwarf low surface brightness galaxies in the context of variuos physical processes that are thought to act on galaxies as they form and evolve.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, to appear in "Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons", IAU244 conference proceeding

    Cation composition effects on oxide conductivity in the Zr_2Y_2O_7-Y_3NbO_7 system

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    Realistic, first-principles-based interatomic potentials have been used in molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of cation composition on the ionic conductivity in the Zr2Y2O7-Y3NbO7 system and to link the dynamical properties to the degree of lattice disorder. Across the composition range, this system retains a disordered fluorite crystal structure and the vacancy concentration is constant. The observed trends of decreasing conductivity and increasing disorder with increasing Nb5+ content were reproduced in simulations with the cations randomly assigned to positions on the cation sublattice. The trends were traced to the influences of the cation charges and relative sizes and their effect on vacancy ordering by carrying out additional calculations in which, for example, the charges of the cations were equalised. The simulations did not, however, reproduce all the observed properties, particularly for Y3NbO7. Its conductivity was significantly overestimated and prominent diffuse scattering features observed in small area electron diffraction studies were not always reproduced. Consideration of these deficiencies led to a preliminary attempt to characterise the consequence of partially ordering the cations on their lattice, which significantly affects the propensity for vacancy ordering. The extent and consequences of cation ordering seem to be much less pronounced on the Zr2Y2O7 side of the composition range.Comment: 22 pages, 8 figures, submitted to Journal of Physics: Condensed Matte

    Quantifying cosmic variance

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    We determine an expression for the cosmic variance of any "normal" galaxy survey based on examination of M* +/- 1 mag galaxies in the SDSS DR7 data cube. We find that cosmic variance will depend on a number of factors principally: total survey volume, survey aspect ratio, and whether the area surveyed is contiguous or comprised of independent sight-lines. As a rule of thumb cosmic variance falls below 10% once a volume of 10^7h_0.7^-3Mpc^3 is surveyed for a single contiguous region with a 1:1 aspect ratio. Cosmic variance will be lower for higher aspect ratios and/or non-contiguous surveys. Extrapolating outside our test region we infer that cosmic variance in the entire SDSS DR7 main survey region is ~7% to z < 0.1. The equation obtained from the SDSS DR7 region can be generalised to estimate the cosmic variance for any density measurement determined from normal galaxies (e.g., luminosity densities, stellar mass densities and cosmic star-formation rates) within the volume range 10^3 to 10^7 h^-3_0.7Mpc^3. We apply our equation to show that 2 sightlines are required to ensure cosmic variance is <10% in any ASKAP galaxy survey (divided into dz ~0.1 intervals, i.e., ~1 Gyr intervals for z <0.5). Likewise 10 MeerKAT sightlines will be required to meet the same conditions. GAMA, VVDS, and zCOSMOS all suffer less than 10% cosmic variance (~3%-8%) in dz intervals of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 respectively. Finally we show that cosmic variance is potentially at the 50-70% level, or greater, in the HST Ultra Deep Field depending on assumptions as to the evolution of clustering. 100 or 10 independent sightlines will be required to reduce cosmic variance to a manageable level (<10%) for HST ACS or HST WFC3 surveys respectively (in dz ~ 1 intervals). Cosmic variance is therefore a significant factor in the z>6 HST studies currently underway.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Massive dark matter haloes around bright isolated galaxies in the 2dFGRS

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    We identify a large sample of isolated bright galaxies and their fainter satellites in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). We analyse the dynamics of ensembles of these galaxies selected according to luminosity and morphological type by stacking the positions of their satellites and estimating the velocity dispersion of the combined set. We test our methodology using realistic mock catalogues constructed from cosmological simulations. The method returns an unbiased estimate of the velocity dispersion provided that the isolation criterion is strict enough to avoid contamination and that the scatter in halo mass at fixed primary luminosity is small. Using a maximum likelihood estimator that accounts for interlopers, we determine the satellite velocity dispersion within a projected radius of 175 h−1kpc. The dispersion increases with the luminosity of the primary and is larger for elliptical galaxies than for spiral galaxies of similar bJ luminosity. Calibrating the mass-velocity dispersion relation using our mock catalogues, we find a dynamical mass within 175 h−1kpc of for elliptical galaxies and for spiral galaxies. Finally, we compare our results with recent studies and investigate their limitations using our mock catalogue

    Synthesis of Colloidal Mn2+:ZnO Quantum Dots and High-TC Ferromagnetic Nanocrystalline Thin Films

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    We report the synthesis of colloidal Mn2+-doped ZnO (Mn2+:ZnO) quantum dots and the preparation of room-temperature ferromagnetic nanocrystalline thin films. Mn2+:ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrolysis and condensation reaction in DMSO under atmospheric conditions. Synthesis was monitored by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. Zn(OAc)2 was found to strongly inhibit oxidation of Mn2+ by O2, allowing the synthesis of Mn2+:ZnO to be performed aerobically. Mn2+ ions were removed from the surfaces of as-prepared nanocrystals using dodecylamine to yield high-quality internally doped Mn2+:ZnO colloids of nearly spherical shape and uniform diameter (6.1 +/- 0.7 nm). Simulations of the highly resolved X- and Q-band nanocrystal EPR spectra, combined with quantitative analysis of magnetic susceptibilities, confirmed that the manganese is substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystals as Mn2+ with very homogeneous speciation, differing from bulk Mn2+:ZnO only in the magnitude of D-strain. Robust ferromagnetism was observed in spin-coated thin films of the nanocrystals, with 300 K saturation moments as large as 1.35 Bohr magneton/Mn2+ and TC > 350 K. A distinct ferromagnetic resonance signal was observed in the EPR spectra of the ferromagnetic films. The occurrence of ferromagnetism in Mn2+:ZnO and its dependence on synthetic variables are discussed in the context of these and previous theoretical and experimental results.Comment: To be published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society Web on July 14, 2004 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja048427j

    The impact of assembly bias on the halo occupation in hydrodynamical simulations

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    We investigate the variations in galaxy occupancy of the dark matter haloes with the large-scale environment and halo formation time, using two state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, EAGLE and Illustris. For both simulations, we use three galaxy samples with a fixed number density ranked by stellar mass. For these samples, we find that low-mass haloes in the most dense environments are more likely to host a central galaxy than those in the least dense environments. When splitting the halo population by formation time, these relations are stronger. Hence, at a fixed low halo mass, early-formed haloes are more likely to host a central galaxy than late-formed haloes since they have had more time to assemble. The satellite occupation shows a reverse trend where early-formed haloes host fewer satellites due to having more time to merge with the central galaxy. We also analyse the stellar mass–halo mass relation for central galaxies in terms of the large-scale environment and formation time of the haloes. We find that low-mass haloes in the most dense environment host relatively more massive central galaxies. This trend is also found when splitting the halo population by age, with early-formed haloes hosting more massive galaxies. Our results are in agreement with previous findings from semi-analytical models, providing robust predictions for the occupancy variation signature in the halo occupation distribution of galaxy formation models

    Void Statistics in Large Galaxy Redshift Surveys: Does Halo Occupation of Field Galaxies Depend on Environment?

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    We use measurements of the projected galaxy correlation function w_p and galaxy void statistics to test whether the galaxy content of halos of fixed mass is systematically different in low density environments. We present new measurements of the void probability function (VPF) and underdensity probability function (UPF) from Data Release Four of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, as well as new measurements of the VPF from the full data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. We compare these measurements to predictions calculated from models of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) that are constrained to match both w_p and the space density of galaxies. The standard implementation of the HOD assumes that galaxy occupation depends on halo mass only, and is independent of local environment. For luminosity-defined samples, we find that the standard HOD prediction is a good match to the observations, and the data exclude models in which galaxy formation efficiency is reduced in low-density environments. More remarkably, we find that the void statistics of red and blue galaxies (at L ~ 0.4L_*) are perfectly predicted by standard HOD models matched to the correlation function of these samples, ruling out "assembly bias" models in which galaxy color is correlated with large-scale environment at fixed halo mass. We conclude that the luminosity and color of field galaxies are determined predominantly by the mass of the halo in which they reside and have little direct dependence on the environment in which the host halo formed. In broader terms, our results show that the sizes and emptiness of voids found in the distribution of L > 0.2L_* galaxies are in excellent agreement with the predictions of a standard cosmological model with a simple connection between galaxies and dark matter halos. (abridged)Comment: 20 emulateapj pages, 9 figures. submitted to Ap

    High-pressure behaviour of GeO2: a simulation study

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    In this work we study the high pressure behaviour of liquid and glassy GeO2 by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The interaction potential, which includes dipole polarization effects, was parameterized from first-principles calculations. Our simulations reproduce the most recent experimental data to a high degree of precision. The proportion of the various GeOn polyhedra is determined as a function of the pressure: a smooth transition from tetrahedral to octahedral network is observed. Finally, the study of high-pressure, liquid germania confirms that this material presents an anomalous behaviour of the diffusivity as observed in analog systems such as silica and water. The importance of penta-coordinated germanium ions for such behaviour is stressed.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, accepted as a Fast Track Communication on Journal of Physics: Condensed Matte
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