80 research outputs found

    Cardiac Hydatid cyst without liver involvement: A case report

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    Hydatid disease is a rare parasitic disease, which mainly involves liver then lung tissues. Cardiac involvement is very rare, especially when there is not hepatic in-volvement. We describe a 47-year-old woman with a history of a lung hydatid cyst who was referred to Rajaei Heart Center, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Her chest computed tomographic scan showed a cardiac mass. Echocardiographic exami-nation illustrated a large, well-defined heterogeneous mass (4.5 � 2.5 cm) in the roof of the right atrium with attachment to the crista terminalis without com-pressive effect on the inferior and superior venae cavae. The patient was candi-date for open-heart surgery via median sternotomy. A cystic mass was observed in the lateral aspect of the right atrial wall. After an injection of hypertonic nor-mal saline into the cystic lesion, the mass was excised totally. The right atrial de-fect was reconstructed with autologous pericardium. The patient was discharged from the hospital in good condition. Histological examination confirmed the di-agnosis of the hydatid cyst. © 2016, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). All rights reserved

    Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

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    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory tone burst elicited vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, indicated by eye muscle responses. We further assessed subjects' postural control and its correlation with vestibular cortical activity. Our results provide the first evidence of using skull taps to elicit vestibular activity inside the MRI scanner. By conducting conjunction analyses we showed that skull taps elicit the same activation pattern as auditory tone bursts (superior temporal gyrus), and both modes of stimulation activate previously identified vestibular cortical regions. Additionally, we found that skull taps elicit more robust vestibular activity compared to auditory tone bursts, with less reported aversive effects. This further supports that the skull tap could replace auditory tone burst stimulation in clinical interventions and basic science research. Moreover, we observed that greater vestibular activation is associated with better balance control. We showed that not only the quality of balance (indicated by the amount of body sway) but also the ability to maintain balance for a longer time (indicated by the balance time) was associated with individuals' vestibular cortical excitability. Our findings support an association between vestibular cortical activity and individual differences in balance. In sum, we found that the skull tap stimulation results in activation of canonical vestibular cortex, suggesting an equally valid, but more tolerable stimulation method compared to auditory tone bursts. This is of high importance in longitudinal vestibular assessments, in which minimizing aversive effects may contribute to higher protocol adherence

    Coronary graft patency after perioperative myocardial infarction: a study with multislice computed tomography‏

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    A total of 55 consecutive patients who experienced perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) after coronary artery bypass grafting were studied using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) angiography to evaluate for graft patency. The MSCT detected acute graft occlusion in 23% grafts. Of the 55 patients, 40% patients had occluded grafts and perioperative MI in the area of the grafted vessels; remaining 60% had patent grafts with infarction in the area of the grafted vessels. Compared with the patients with patent grafts, those with occluded grafts had a higher blood sugar level. In addition, graft occlusion was higher in grafts with severe distal disease. Among the patients with patent grafts, luminal stenosis of the native vessels supplying the infarcted myocardium was higher than that in the native vessels supplying the non-infarcted myocardium. In conclusion, MSCT is feasible for the assessment of graft patency in the setting of perioperative MI. Graft occlusion is detected in less than half of the cases and usually occurs in the grafts with severe distal involvement and the patients with uncontrolled hyperglycemia. In patients with patent grafts, the severity of luminal stenosis of the native grafted vessel is the main predisposing factor for perioperative MI

    Assessment of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation using torsional parameters described by tissue doppler imaging

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    Background: Left ventricular (LV) twist is due to oppositely directed apical and basal rotation and has been proposed as a sensitive marker of LV function. We sought to assess the impact of chronic pure mitral regurgitation (MR) on the torsional mechanics of the left human ventricle using tissue Doppler imaging. Methods: Nineteen severe MR patients with a normal LV ejection fraction and 16 non-MR controls underwent conventional echocardiography and apical and basal short-axis color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI). LV rotation at the apical and basal short-axis levels was calculated from the averaged tangential velocities of the septal and lateral regions, corrected for the LV radius over time. LV twist was defined as the difference in LV rotation between the two levels, and the LV twist and twisting/untwisting rate profiles were analyzed throughout the cardiac cycle. Results: LV twist and LV torsion were significantly lower in the MR group than in the non-MR group (10.38 ° ± 4.04 ° vs. 13.95 ° ± 4.27 °; p value = 0.020; and 1.29 ± 0.54 °/cm vs. 1.76 ± 0.56 °/cm; p value = 0.021, respectively), both suggesting incipient LV dysfunction in the MR group. Similarly, the untwisting rate was lower in the MR group (-79.74 ± 35.97 °/s vs.-110.96 ± 34.65 °/s; p value = 0.020), but there was statistically no significant difference in the LV twist rate. Conclusion: The evaluation of LV torsional parameters in MR patients with a normal LV ejection fraction suggests the potential role of these sensitive variables in assessing the early signs of ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients

    In-hospital and six-month outcomes of elderly patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute st-elevation myocardial infarction

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    BACKGROUND: Elderly patients constitute a rapidly growing proportion of the population, and hence the increasing rises in the number of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which is now established as the preferred reperfusion strategy in STEMI patients, has been inadequately investigated in this high-risk group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in- hospital and 6-month outcomes of primary PCI in elderly patients (� 75 years) with STEMI. METHODS: A total of 100 elderly patients with STEMI including those with cardiogenic shock were included. Primary PCI procedures were performed in a tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2014. In-hospital and 6-month outcomes of patients were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 79.6 ± 3.8 years (range = 75-90 years) and 27.0 were women. Cardiovascular risk factors and prior events were common. Nearly, half of the patients had three-vessel disease and the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was the most common infarct-related artery. The presence of cardiogenic shock but not the other variables was associated with less anatomic and procedural success (P < 0.001). It was also the major independent predictors of 6-month mortality in the patients aged � 75 years, hazard ratio (HR) = 8.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-25.97, P < 0.001. In-hospital mortality was 2.4% in the patients without and 83.0% in those with cardiogenic shock. CONCLUSION: Primary PCI in aged patients could be associated with low complication rates and improved survival if performed in high-volume centers with experienced operators. Considering the very high rate of mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock, there should be measures to treat these patients before the onset of hemodynamic instability. © 2016, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(IUMS). All rights reserved

    The effect of preoperative aspirin use on postoperative bleeding and perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

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    Background: We tried to evaluate the clinical outcomes (mortality, postoperative bleeding and perioperative myocardial infarction) of patients who underwent first elective coronary artery bypass grafting and received aspirin during the preoperative period. Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized and single-blinded clinical trial. Two hundred patients were included and divided into two groups. One group received aspirin 80-160 mg, while in the other aspirin was stopped at least seven days before surgery. The primary end-points of the study were in-hospital mortality and hemorrhage-related complications (postoperative blood loss in the intensive care unit, re-exploration for bleeding and red blood cell and non-red blood cell requirements). The secondary end-point was perioperative myocardial infarction. Results: There were no differences in patient characteristics between the aspirin users and non-aspirin users. We found a significant difference between postoperative blood loss (608 ± ± 359.7 ml vs. 483 ± 251.5 ml, p = 0.005) and red blood cell product requirements (1.32 2+ ± 0.97 unit packed cell vs. 0.94 ± 1.02 unit packed cell, p = 0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding platelet requirement and the rate of in-hospital mortality and re-exploration for bleeding. Similarly, we found no significant difference in the incidence of definite and probable perioperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.24 and p = 0.56 respectively) or in-hospital mortality between the two groups. Conclusion: Preoperative aspirin administration increased postoperative bleeding and red blood cell requirements with no effect on mortality, re-exploration rate and perioperative myocardial infarction. We recommend withdrawal of aspirin seven days prior to surgery. Copyright © 2007 Via Medica

    Cardio-oncology discipline: focus on the necessities in developing countries

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    Cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the main aetiologies of mortality among patients with cancer. Population ageing and cancer survival rate improvements have resulted in the coexistence of cardiovascular diseases and malignancies in an increasing number of patients. With the diversity in treatments and the introduction of new drug lines, multiple mechanisms of cardiovascular injury have been recognized in these patients. Cardio-oncology is an emerging entity introduced to provide a proper solution to the several challenges encountered in the management of patients with cancer and cardiac involvement. This review will assess the logical grounds for establishing a cardio-oncology unit, describe the main objectives and the detailed responsibilities in such systems, and outline the target population. Furthermore, the importance of research and appropriate data collection will be highlighted. Lastly, the special considerations and modifications required for setting up such centres in the developing countries are discussed. © 2020 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiolog

    Determination of instantaneous interventricular septum wall thickness by processing sequential 2D echocardiographic images

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    Non-invasive quantitative analysis of the heart walls thickness is a fundamental step in diagnosis and discrimination of heart disease. Thickness measurements in 2D echocardiographic images have many applications in research and clinic for assessing of wall stress, wall thickening and viability parameters. Regarding to interventricular septum wall thickness measurement by conventional manual method is more dependent on sonographer experiment; this encouraged these researchers to develop a semi-automatic computer algorithm in accessing to interventricular septum segments thickness. We proposed and carried out a computerized algorithm for wall thickness measurements in 2D echocardiographic image frames. In this program, wall thickness measurement is based of intensity profile function and adaptive bilateral thresholding operation. For validation, thicknesses of septum base and mid segments were estimated in constituent image frames with use of proposed method and then were compared with conventional manual results at same images of the cardiac cycle by statistical methods. In our sample image frames (240 corresponding segments; with different rang of image quality), a bias of 0.10 and 0.12 mm with SD differences of ±0.81 and ±0.72 mm and correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.89 were found in base and mid segments, respectively. Interobserver variability using the Computer-Assisted Method (CAM) and Conventional Manual Method (CMM) were 4.0 and 4.7 for the basal and 2.8 and 3.9 for the middle segments. The method introduced in the present study permits precise thickness assessment of base and mid segments of the interventricular septum wall and has high concordance with CMM. © 2007 Asian Network for Scientific Information

    Suprasternal innominate artery cannulation for reoperative aortic surgery: A technical note

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    Suprasternal cannulation of the innominate artery in aortic reoperations may be useful in specific situations. Over a period of 3.5 years, 9 patients (6 males, average age = 49.2 ± 16.1 years) underwent suprasternal cannulation prior to resternotomy. Cannulation was performed using a side graft. All operations were successfully completed. Two patients died after surgery because of coagulopathy and multiorgan failure. There were no complications related to access or technique, and no site complications were detected during follow-up. Suprasternal cannulation of the innominate artery may play a role in selected reoperations. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved

    Assessment of left atrial reservoir function in mitral valve disease by tissue doppler, strain and strain rate imaging

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    Introduction: Mitral valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation still result in significant morbidity and mortality. It has been shown that atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation may occur in these patients. We sought to investigate how pressure or volume overload in the left atrium could impact atrial deformation properties obtained via Doppler-derived velocity and strain/strain rate imaging. Methods: Thirty-six patients, comprising 17 patients with a diagnosis of moderate to severe mitral stenosis and 19 patients with a diagnosis of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, were compared with 16 healthy subjects. Two-dimensional, pulse Doppler, and tissue Doppler transthoracic echocardiographic study was performed. Measurement of regional velocity, strain and SR profiles, peak systolic velocity, peak strain, and strain rate was performed in two segments of the four left atrial walls. Results: There was a significant decline in peak systolic velocity in the mitral stenosis patients in both annular and roof segments, but the difference was not statistically significant between the mitral regurgitation patients and the healthy subjects. Total velocity was significantly lower in the mitral stenosis patients than in the healthy subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant between the healthy subjects and the mitral regurgitation patients. Comparison of total strain showed significant differences between the three groups mainly due to a decline in strain in the mitral stenosis patients in comparison with the other two groups. Comparison of total peak systolic strain rate between the groups showed significant differences due to a significant decline in the mitral stenosis group and a non-significant decline in the mitral regurgitation group by comparison with the healthy group. Conclusion: This reduction, especially in strain and strain rate, shows that the reservoir function of the left atrium could be compromised more severely in asymptomatic mitral stenosis patients. © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved
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