14,491 research outputs found

    The Static Quantum Multiverse

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    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, including the fact that we observe that time flows in a definite direction. Selecting the multiverse state is ultimately boiled down to finding normalizable solutions to certain zero-eigenvalue equations, analogous to the case of the hydrogen atom. Unambiguous physical predictions would then follow, according to the rules of quantum mechanics.Comment: 27 pages, 2 figures; a typo in the abstract correcte

    Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions in the six-state clock model

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    Classical 2D clock model is known to have a critical phase with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless(BKT) transitions. These transitions have logarithmic corrections which make numerical analysis difficult. In order to resolve this difficulty, one of the authors has proposed the method called level spectroscopy, which is based on the conformal field theory. We extend this method to the multi-degenerated case. As an example, we study the classical 2D 6-clock model which can be mapped to the quantum self-dual 1D 6-clock model. Additionally, we confirm that the self-dual point has a precise numerical agreement with the analytical result, and we argue the degeneracy of the excitation states at the self-dual point from the effective field theoretical point of view.Comment: 18pages, 7figure

    Shape evolution and the role of intruder configurations in Hg isotopes within the interacting boson model based on a Gogny energy density functional

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    The interacting boson model with configuration mixing, with parameters derived from the self-consistent mean-field calculation employing the microscopic Gogny energy density functional, is applied to the systematic analysis of the low-lying structure in Hg isotopes. Excitation energies, electromagnetic transition rates, deformation properties, and ground-state properties of the 172‚ąí204^{172-204}Hg nuclei are obtained by mapping the microscopic deformation energy surface onto the equivalent IBM Hamiltonian in the boson condensate. These results point to the overall systematic trend of the transition from the near spherical vibrational state in lower-mass Hg nuclei close to 172^{172}Hg, onset of intruder prolate configuration as well as the manifest prolate-oblate shape coexistence around the mid-shell nucleus 184^{184}Hg, weakly oblate deformed structure beyond 190^{190}Hg up to the spherical vibrational structure toward the near semi-magic nucleus 204^{204}Hg, as observed experimentally. The quality of the present method in the description of the complex shape dynamics in Hg isotopes is examined.Comment: 19 pages, 14 figures, revised version including new results and discussions, title changed, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Structural evolution in germanium and selenium nuclei within the mapped interacting boson model based on the Gogny energy density functional

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    The shape transitions and shape coexistence in the Ge and Se isotopes are studied within the interacting boson model (IBM) with the microscopic input from the self-consistent mean-field calculation based on the Gogny-D1M energy density functional. The mean-field energy surface as a function of the quadrupole shape variables ő≤\beta and ő≥\gamma, obtained from the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method, is mapped onto the expectation value of the IBM Hamiltonian with configuration mixing in the boson condensate state. The resultant Hamiltonian is used to compute excitation energies and electromagnetic properties of the selected nuclei 66‚ąí94^{66-94}Ge and 68‚ąí96^{68-96}Se. Our calculation suggests that many nuclei exhibit ő≥\gamma softness. Coexistence between prolate and oblate, as well as between spherical and ő≥\gamma-soft, shapes is also observed. The method provides a reasonable description of the observed systematics of the excitation energy of the low-lying energy levels and transition strengths for nuclei below the neutron shell closure N=50N=50, and provides predictions on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich Ge and Se isotopes with 52‚ȧN‚ȧ6252\leq N\leq 62, where data are scarce or not available.Comment: 16 pages, 20 figure

    Spectroscopy of quadrupole and octupole states in rare-earth nuclei from a Gogny force

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    Collective quadrupole and octupole states are described in a series of Sm and Gd isotopes within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM), whose Hamiltonian parameters are deduced from mean field calculations with the Gogny energy density functional. The link between both frameworks is the (ő≤2ő≤3\beta_2\beta_3) potential energy surface computed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework in the case of the Gogny force. The diagonalization of the IBM Hamiltonian provides excitation energies and transition strengths of an assorted set of states including both positive and negative parity states. The resultant spectroscopic properties are compared with the available experimental data and also with the results of the configuration mixing calculations with the Gogny force within the generator coordinate method (GCM). The structure of excited 0+0^{+} states and its connection with double octupole phonons is also addressed. The model is shown to describe the empirical trend of the low-energy quadrupole and octupole collective structure fairly well, and turns out to be consistent with GCM results obtained with the Gogny force.Comment: 17 pages, 12 figures, 4 table

    Coupled charge and valley excitations in graphene quantum Hall ferromagnets

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    Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon material with a honeycomb lattice and Dirac-type low-energy spectrum. In a strong magnetic field, where Coulomb interactions dominate against disorder broadening, quantum Hall ferromagnetic states realize at integer fillings. Extending the quantum Hall ferromagnetism to the fractional filling case of massless Dirac fermions, we study the elementally charge excitations which couple with the valley degrees of freedom (so-called valley skyrmions). With the use of the density matrix renomalization group (DMRG) method, the excitation gaps are calculated and extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit. These results exhibit numerical evidences and criterions of the skyrmion excitations in graphene.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Supersymmetry without the Desert

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    Naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking in weak scale supersymmetric theories may suggest the absence of the conventional supersymmetric desert. We present a simple, realistic framework for supersymmetry in which (most of) the virtues of the supersymmetric desert are naturally reproduced without having a large energy interval above the weak scale. The successful supersymmetric prediction for the low-energy gauge couplings is reproduced due to a gauged R symmetry present in the effective theory at the weak scale. The observable sector superpotential naturally takes the form of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, but without being subject to the Landau pole constraints up to the conventional unification scale. Supersymmetry breaking masses are generated by the F-term and D-term VEVs of singlet and U(1)_R gauge fields, as well as by anomaly mediation, at a scale not far above the weak scale. We study the resulting patten of supersymmetry breaking masses in detail, and find that it can be quite distinct. We construct classes of explicit models within this framework, based on higher dimensional unified theories with TeV-sized extra dimensions. A similar model based on a non-R symmetry is also presented. These models have a rich phenomenology at the TeV scale, and allow for detailed analyses of, e.g., electroweak symmetry breaking.Comment: 42 page

    Covariant - tensor method for quantum groups and applications I: SU(2)qSU(2)_{q}

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    A covariant - tensor method for SU(2)qSU(2)_{q} is described. This tensor method is used to calculate q - deformed Clebsch - Gordan coefficients. The connection with covariant oscillators and irreducible tensor operators is established. This approach can be extended to other quantum groups.Comment: 18 page
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