457 research outputs found

    Thixotropy in macroscopic suspensions of spheres

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    An experimental study of the viscosity of a macroscopic suspension, i.e. a suspension for which Brownian motion can be neglected, under steady shear is presented. The suspension is prepared with a high packing fraction and is density-matched in a Newtonian carrier fluid. The viscosity of the suspension depends on the shear rate and the time of shearing. It is shown for the first time that a macroscopic suspension shows thixotropic viscosity, i.e. shear-thinning with a long relaxation time as a unique function of shear. The relaxation times show a systematic decrease with increasing shear rate. These relaxation times are larger when decreasing the shear rates, compared to those observed after increasing the shear. The time scales involved are about 10000 times larger than the viscous time scale and about 1000 times smaller than the thermodynamic time scale. The structure of the suspension at the outer cylinder of a viscometer is monitored with a camera, showing the formation of a hexagonal structure. The temporal decrease of the viscosity under shear coincides with the formation of this hexagonal pattern

    Search for resonant WZ production in the fully leptonic final state in proton–proton collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Measurement of exclusive pion pair production in proton–proton collisions at √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector