5,798 research outputs found

    Funding intensive care - approaches in systems using diagnosis-related groups.

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    This report reviews approaches to funding intensive care in health systems that use activitybased payment mechanisms based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to reimburse hospital care. The report aims to inform the current debate about options for funding intensive care services for adults, children and newborns in England. Funding mechanisms reviewed here include those in Australia (Victoria), Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United States (Medicare). Approaches to organising, providing and funding hospital care vary widely among these countries/states, largely reflecting structural differences in the organisation of healthcare systems. Mechanisms of funding intensive care services tend to fall into three broad categories: • those that fund intensive care through DRGs as part of one episode of hospital care only (US Medicare, Germany, selected regions in Sweden and Italy) • those that use DRGs in combination with co-payments (Victoria, France) • those that exclude intensive care from DRG funding and use an alternative form of payment, for example global budgets (Spain) or per diems (South Australia). Approaches to funding paediatric and neonatal intensive care largely reflect the overall funding mechanism for intensive care. Evidence reviewed here indicates a general concern of potential underfunding of intensive care. These problems may be particularly pertinent for those settings that provide neonatal and paediatric care because of the very high costs and the relatively smaller number of cases in these settings compared with adult intensive care. Similar issues apply to highly specialised services in adult intensive care, such as treatment of severe burns. Given the variety of approaches to funding intensive care services, this review suggests that there is no obvious example of “best practice” or dominant approach used by a majority of systems. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages, particularly in relation to the financial risk involved in providing intensive care. While the risk of underfunding intensive care may be highest in systems that apply DRGs to the entire episode of hospital care, including intensive care, concerns about potential underfunding were voiced in all systems reviewed here. Arrangements for additional funding in the form of co-payments or surcharges may reduce the risk of underfunding. However, these approaches also face the difficulty of determining the appropriate level of (additional) payment and balancing the incentive effect arising from higher payment

    LOADS: a computer program for determining the shear, bending moment and axial loads for fuselage type structures

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    LOADS determines rigid body vehicle shears, bending moments and axial loads on a space vehicle due to aerodynamic loads and propellant inertial loads. An example hand calculation is presented and was used to check LOADS. A brief description of the program and the equations used are presented. LOADS is operational on the Univac 1110, occupies 10505 core and typically takes less than one(1) second of CAU time to execute

    Strategies for health services

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    What we have learned about policy-research linkage from providing a rapid response facility for international healthcare comparisons to the Department of Health in England

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    In this paper we reflect on our experience of providing a rapid response facility for international healthcare policy comparisons to the English Department of Health. We examine the challenges of developing sustained relationships with policy officials while providing an 'on-demand' service in an environment with high turnover of policies and staff. It may be easier for policy makers to draw on researchers in such a setting than for researchers to foster 'linkage and exchange' relationships with policy makers. Under the facility, knowledge transfer has mostly been from researchers to policy officials, affording us little insight into the policy process or the impact of our work

    What is the evidence on the economic impacts of integrated care?

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    This new policy summary reviews the existing evidence on the economic impact of integrated care approaches. Whereas it is generally accepted that integrated care models have a positive effect on the quality of care, health outcomes and patient satisfaction, it is less clear how cost effective they are. As the evidence-base in this field is rather weak, the authors suggest that we may have to revisit our understanding of the concept and our expectations in terms of its assessment. Integrated care should rather be seen as a complex strategy to innovate and implement long-lasting change in the way services in the health and social-care sectors are delivered. This policy summary (number 11) is based on a report for the European Commission to inform the discussions of the EU’s Reflection process on modern, responsive and sustainable health systems on the objective of integrated care models and better hospital management. Both authors are affiliated to RAND Europe
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