6 research outputs found

    Preliminary spectroscopic characterization of PEGylated mucin, a novel polymeric drug delivery system

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    The objective of this study was to evaluate, spectrophotometrically, the compatibility of non-mucinated polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and non-PEGylated mucin in a PEGylated mucin matrices for drug delivery application. Mucin was extracted from the giant African land snails (Archachatina maginata) using chilled acetone and characterized in terms of qualitative properties and solubility profile. Polymeric matrices composed of PEG 4000 and mucin in ratios of 2:0 (A), 1:1 (B), 2:1(C) and 3:1 (D) were prepared by co-precipitation using chilled acetone. The matrices were characterized with respect to compatibility using the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results of the qualitative tests performed on the snail mucin showed that carbohydrates, proteins and trace amounts of fats were present; the extracted mucin was light-brownish in colour, with a pleasant meaty odour. Snail mucin, when dispersed in water yielded a slightly viscous dispersion, but is not soluble in ethanol, acetone, 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and sulphuric acid. The presence of different peaks in the FT-IR spectra of the PEGylated mucin matrices compared with the non-PEGylated mucin (2:0) matrix and non-mucinated PEG 4000 (0:2) matrix indicated the formation of new polymers, which could be employed in drug delivery. This study has shown that PEGylation of mucin gives rise to new polymeric system with principal FT-IR peaks quite different from those of non-PEGylated mucin and nonmucinated PEG, and this may be employed in the delivery of drugs.Key words: PEGylation, drug delivery, mucin, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Archachatina maginata

    Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems for the treatment of anterior segment eye diseases

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    Diseases affecting the anterior segment of the eye are the primary causes of vision impairment and blindness globally. Drug administration through the topical ocular route is widely accepted because of its user/patient friendliness - ease of administration and convenience. However, it remains a significant challenge to efficiently deliver drugs to the eye through this route because of various structural and physiological constraints that restrict the distribution of therapeutic molecules into the ocular tissues. The bioavailability of topically applied ocular medications such as eye drops is typically less than 5%. Developing novel delivery systems to increase the retention time on the ocular surfaces and permeation through the cornea is one of the approaches adopted to boost the bioavailability of topically administered medications. Drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology such as micelles, nanosuspensions, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, liposomes, dendrimers, niosomes, cubosomes and nanowafers have been investigated as effective alternatives to conventional ocular delivery systems in treating diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. This review discussed different nanotechnology-based delivery systems that are currently investigated for treating and managing diseases affecting the anterior ocular tissues. We also looked at the challenges in translating these systems into clinical use and the prospects of nanocarriers as a vehicle for the delivery of phytoactive compounds to the anterior segment of the eye

    Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity of Herbal Lipospheres of <i>Pentaclethra macrophylla</i> (Fabaceae) Stem Bark Extract

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    Purpose: Inflammation of various degrees is common among humans. There are associated side effects with orthodox delivery systems and anti-inflammatory agents; hence, the study investigated the characteristics of herbal lipospheres and the anti-inflammatory potency of the lipospheres formulated from Pentaclethra macrophylla with the view to having a drug with a better delivery system and lesser side effects. Methods: Herbal lipospheres were formulated using solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS) of P90H and goat fat and characterized for particle size and morphology, pH time dependent analysis, encapsulation efficiency (EE%), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory studies were carried out using membrane stabilization by hypotonicity-induced hemolysis and the determination of anti-platelet aggregatory activity models. The in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory studies on egg albumin- and formaldehyde-induced arthritis models were conducted. A total white blood cell count and differential blood count were carried out on the rats. Results: The results showed that there was no change in pH for the PM-unloaded lipospheres and 2.5 g of PM-loaded lipospheres from day 1 to day 7, but there was a mild variation in the rest of the formulations. The EE ranged from 35.2% to 94%, increasing according to the drug concentration. The photomicrographs of the lipospheres showed that the particles were spherical in shape. The particle sizes were within the acceptable range for lipospheres. FTIR showed no interaction. In the arthritis study, PM-loaded lipospheres inhibited edema consistently throughout the duration of observation. Inhibition of the membrane increased steadily with an increase in concentration of PM in the lipospheres and the standard drug. The platelet aggregatory inhibition decreased steadily with an increase in concentration of the PM in the lipospheres as well as the standard. The T50 dose of PM had the highest percentage of WBC, and it decreased as the treatment doses increased from T100 to T200. There were no significant differences among the Neutrophil counts of the different groups. Conclusions: The study, therefore, showed that the methanol extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla formed efficient herbal lipospheres with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities

    Novel Intravaginal Drug Delivery System Based on Molecularly PEGylated Lipid Matrices for Improved Antifungal Activity of Miconazole Nitrate

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    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of microparticles based on biocompatible phytolipids [Softisan® 154 (SF) (hydrogenated palm oil) and super-refined sunseed oil (SO)] and polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) 4000 to improve intravaginal delivery of miconazole nitrate (MN) for effective treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Lipid matrices (LMs) consisting of rational blends of SF and SO with or without PEG-4000 were prepared by fusion and characterized and employed to formulate MN-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by melt-homogenization. The SLMs were characterized for physicochemical properties, anticandidal activity, and stability. Spherical discrete microparticles with good physicochemical properties and mean diameters suitable for vaginal drug delivery were obtained. Formulations based on SO:SF (1:9) and containing highest concentrations of PEG-4000 (4 %w/w) and MN (3.0 %w/w) were stable and gave highest encapsulation efficiency (83.05–87.75%) and inhibition zone diameter (25.87±0.94–26.33±0.94 mm) and significantly (p<0.05) faster and more powerful fungicidal activity regarding killing rate constant values (7.10 x 10−3–1.09 x 10−2 min−1) than commercial topical solution of MN (Fungusol®) (8.00 x 10−3 min−1) and pure MN sample (5.160 x 10−3 min−1). This study has shown that MN-loaded SLMs based on molecularly PEGylated lipid matrices could provide a better option to deal with VVC

    Quinine: Redesigned and Rerouted

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    Quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) has remained a very relevant antimalarial drug 400 years after its effectiveness was discovered. Unlike other antimalarials, the development of resistance to quinine has been slow. Hence, this drug is to date still used for the treatment of severe and cerebral malaria, for malaria treatment in all trimesters of pregnancy, and in combination with doxycycline against multidrug-resistant malaria parasites. The decline in its administration over the years is mainly associated with poor tolerability due to its gastrointestinal (GIT) side effects such as cinchonism, complex dosing regimen and bitter taste, all of which result in poor compliance. Hence, our research was aimed at redesigning quinine using nanotechnology and investigating an alternative route for its administration for the treatment of malaria. QHCl nanosuspension (QHCl-NS) for intranasal administration was prepared using lipid matrices made up of solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS) comprising Phospholipon® 90H and lipids (Softisan® 154 or Compritol®) in a 1:2 ratio, while Poloxamer® 188 (P188) and Tween® 80 (T80) were used as a stabilizer and a surfactant, respectively. The QHCl-NS formulated were in the nanosize range (68.60 ± 0.86 to 300.80 ± 10.11 nm), and highly stable during storage, though zeta potential was low (≤6.95 ± 0.416). QHCl-NS achieved above 80% in vitro drug release in 6 h. Ex vivo permeation studies revealed that formulating QHCl as NS resulted in a 5-fold and 56-fold increase in the flux and permeation coefficient, respectively, thereby enhancing permeation through pig nasal mucosa better than plain drug solutions. This implies that the rate of absorption as well as ease of drug permeation through porcine nasal mucosa was impressively enhanced by formulating QHCl as NS. Most importantly, reduction in parasitaemia in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA by QHCl-NS administered through the intranasal route (51.16%) was comparable to oral administration (52.12%). Therefore, redesigning QHCl as NS for intranasal administration has great potential to serve as a more tolerable option for the treatment of malaria in endemic areas