76 research outputs found

    Cryogenic characterisation of a permanent magnet stepper motor and its impact on the MICADO atmospheric dispersion corrector

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    The MICADO atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) will be the first ADC built for an astronomical instrument that has to operate in a cryogenic environment (T = 77 K). A detailed understanding of the system behaviour is necessary to maximise the operational lifetime of the planned design concept and to design a suitable controller. The MICADO ADC design features a friction drive concept that is powered by a commercially available permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM). Here, we report on an extensive characterisation of this PMSM. By matching the experimental results to an analytical description of PMSMs, we obtain a solid foundation to build a complete dynamical model of the ADC system. A prototype of the ADC design concept had already been built and tested at its operational temperature. The results from these tests allowed us to compare the measured and modelled response and discuss the implications. With respect to the motor characterisation, we find no significant performance difference of the tested stepper motor when operated at room temperature, compared to at 77 K. However, we do find that static friction plays a large role in the precise response of the ADC mechanism

    Cryogenic characterisation of a permanent magnet stepper motor and its impact on the MICADO atmospheric dispersion corrector

    Get PDF
    The MICADO atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) will be the first ADC built for an astronomical instrument that has to operate in a cryogenic environment (T = 77 K). A detailed understanding of the system behaviour is necessary to maximise the operational lifetime of the planned design concept and to design a suitable controller. The MICADO ADC design features a friction drive concept that is powered by a commercially available permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM). Here, we report on an extensive characterisation of this PMSM. By matching the experimental results to an analytical description of PMSMs, we obtain a solid foundation to build a complete dynamical model of the ADC system. A prototype of the ADC design concept had already been built and tested at its operational temperature. The results from these tests allowed us to compare the measured and modelled response and discuss the implications. With respect to the motor characterisation, we find no significant performance difference of the tested stepper motor when operated at room temperature, compared to at 77 K. However, we do find that static friction plays a large role in the precise response of the ADC mechanism

    Inflation on the Brane with Vanishing Gravity

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    Many existing models of brane inflation suffer from a steep irreducible gravitational potential between the branes that causes inflation to end too early. Inspired by the fact that point masses in 2+1 D exert no gravitational force, we propose a novel unwarped and non-supersymmetric setup for inflation, consisting of 3-branes in two extra dimensions compactified on a sphere. The size of the sphere is stabilized by a combination of a bulk cosmological constant and a magnetic flux. Computing the 4D effective potential between probe branes in this background, we find a non-zero contribution only from exchange of level-1 KK modes of the graviton and radion. Identifying antipodal points on the 2-sphere projects out these modes, eliminating entirely the troublesome gravitational contribution to the inflationary potential.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, JHEP forma

    Inhibition of Y1 receptor signaling improves islet transplant outcome

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    Failure to secrete sufficient quantities of insulin is a pathological feature of type-1 and type-2 diabetes, and also reduces the success of islet cell transplantation. Here we demonstrate that Y1 receptor signaling inhibits insulin release in ╬▓-cells, and show that this can be pharmacologically exploited to boost insulin secretion. Transplanting islets with Y1 receptor deficiency accelerates the normalization of hyperglycemia in chemically induced diabetic recipient mice, which can also be achieved by short-term pharmacological blockade of Y1 receptors in transplanted mouse and human islets. Furthermore, treatment of non-obese diabetic mice with a Y1 receptor antagonist delays the onset of diabetes. Mechanistically, Y1 receptor signaling inhibits the production of cAMP in islets, which via CREB mediated pathways results in the down-regulation of several key enzymes in glycolysis and ATP production. Thus, manipulating Y1 receptor signaling in ╬▓-cells offers a unique therapeutic opportunity for correcting insulin deficiency as it occurs in the pathological state of type-1 diabetes as well as during islet transplantation.Islet transplantation is considered one of the potential treatments for T1DM but limited islet survival and their impaired function pose limitations to this approach. Here Loh et al. show that the Y1 receptor is expressed in ╬▓- cells and inhibition of its signalling, both genetic and pharmacological, improves mouse and human islet function.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe
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