284 research outputs found

    The Regional Dimension of the Distribution and Effects of Public Incentives Directed towards Innovation of Firms

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    This study is based on the recent vision that the innovative activity is a territorial phenomenon which is enhanced by the cooperation between actors and local infrastructures. The aim of this study is to determine whether the specific economic and institutional conditions of a region have an influence on the results of a national policy intended to support entrepreneurial innovation. The analysis is directed towards comparing the effect of this policy between firms located in Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque country, regions which concentrate around 70% of Spain’s innovative activity. The type of analysis undertaken allows to approach a situation which lies close to solving two of the most important methodological problems which arise when the evaluation of innovation policies is put into practice: the lack of control over the aid distribution process, and the non-estimation of a counterfactual state (the scenario without public support). The results of this study allow to conclude that the region plays an important differentiating role in the final result of the national innovation policy. Therefore, this study recommends to include the localization of the firm in future evaluations

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005‚Äď2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    La difusión de las prácticas de responsabilidad social en las empresas multinacionales

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    Este artículo se centra en el estudio de la dimensión internacional de la responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC). Se estudia el proceso de difusión que han experimentado las prácticas de RSC en el plano internacional, se identifican distintas concepciones de RSC y se analizan sus efectos sobre la eficiencia. Adicionalmente, se analizan los problemas específicos que plantea a las empresas multinacionales la adopción de criterios socialmente responsables

    Mobility of public researchers, scientific knowledge transfer, and the firm's innovation process

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    The present study provides evidence on the mobility effects of researchers from the public R&D system with regard to firm¬īs innovation process. This issue is particularly novel and important as these researchers contribute to the production and transfer of knowledge previously developed and accumulated in the public R&D system. The findings confirm that scientific knowledge which public researchers provide has a positive influence on both inputs and outputs of the firms‚Äô innovation process. The fact that firms have access to additional knowledge which is complementary to that they already hold represents a spur for exploiting and applying this new knowledge. The firms in this study continually increased their in-house R&D investments. As a result of these investments firms create new knowledge of a unique and valuable type. The study draws two important conclusions geared to providing a greater efficiency in human resource management and to improve the design of technology policies

    Ambigedad causal, pr cticas de recursos humanos de alto compromiso y resultados empresariales

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    El enfoque basado en los recursos (EBR) (resource-based view RBV) sugiere que las empresas conseguir¬†n y mantendr¬†n en el tiempo una posici¬Ęn de ventaja competitiva solamente si sus recursos son inimitables. Es por ello, que la protecci¬Ęn frente a la imitaci¬Ęn se convierte en un aspecto clave para las empresas de hoy en d¬°a. Tradicionalmente, se ha reconocido en la literatura que existe una relaci¬Ęn positiva entre el nivel de protecci¬Ęn de las competencias y la existencia de ambigedad causal. Sin embargo, algunos estudios recientes apuntan, en contra de este supuesto, que la existencia de dicha ambigedad en el seno de las empresas impide la transferencia de competencias en el interior de las organizaciones, lo que dificulta la consecuci¬Ęn de altos resultados. El primer objetivo de esta investigaci¬Ęn es analizar ambas corrientes con el fin ¬£ltimo de establecer cu¬†l es la influencia neta que ejerce la ambigedad causal sobre los rendimientos corporativos. El segundo, analizar c¬Ęmo las pr¬†cticas de recursos humanos de alto compromiso o alta participaci¬Ęn pueden contribuir a resolver este debate. Para ello, se propone un conjunto de hip¬Ętesis que ser¬†n contrastadas en una muestra de 258 empresas manufactureras espa¬§olas. The resource-based view (RBV) predicts that firms will achieve and sustain a position of competitive advantage over time only if their resources and capabilities are difficult to imitate. Traditionally, it has been recognised that causal ambiguity, by making it difficult for competitors to identify the capabilities on which a particular firm bases its competitive advantage, represents an effective protection mechanism helping the firm to obtain superior performance. Recently, researchers have unearthed evidence that the effects of causal ambiguity also could be extend to the interior of the firm itself, hampering the diffusion of its own capabilities among its managers. In this case, the existence of causal ambiguity will have a negative impact on firm performance. In this paper we study both effects using a sample of 258 Spanish manufacturing firms, and we show that causal ambiguity exerts a doubleedged influence on firm performance. On the positive side, in its effect on the firm?s competitors, and on the negative, in its effect on the firm?s managers, with this second effect being stronger.Ambigedad causal, imitaci¬Ęn, transferencia de competencias, pr¬†cticas de recursos humanos de alto compromiso. Causal ambiguity, imitation, transfer of competencies.

    Complexity in biological organization: deconstruction (and subsequent restating) of key concepts

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    The "magic" word complexity evokes a multitude of meanings that obscure its real sense. Here we try and generate a bottom-up reconstruction of the deep sense of complexity by looking at the convergence of different features shared by complex systems. We specifically focus on complexity in biology but stressing the similarities with analogous features encountered in inanimate and artefactual systems in order to track an integrative path toward a new "mainstream" of science overcoming the actual fragmentation of scientific culture

    AMISEC: Leveraging Redundancy and Adaptability to Secure AmI Applications

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    Security in Ambient Intelligence (AmI) poses too many challenges due to the inherently insecure nature of wireless sensor nodes. However, there are two characteristics of these environments that can be used effectively to prevent, detect, and confine attacks: redundancy and continuous adaptation. In this article we propose a global strategy and a system architecture to cope with security issues in AmI applications at different levels. Unlike in previous approaches, we assume an individual wireless node is vulnerable. We present an agent-based architecture with supporting services that is proven to be adequate to detect and confine common attacks. Decisions at different levels are supported by a trust-based framework with good and bad reputation feedback while maintaining resistance to bad-mouthing attacks. We also propose a set of services that can be used to handle identification, authentication, and authorization in intelligent ambients. The resulting approach takes into account practical issues, such as resource limitation, bandwidth optimization, and scalability

    Exploiting graphic processing units parallelism to improve intelligent data acquisition system performance in JET's correlation reflectometer

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    The performance of intelligent data acquisition systems relies heavily on their processing capabilities and local bus bandwidth, especially in applications with high sample rates or high number of channels. This is the case of the self adaptive sampling rate data acquisition system installed as a pilot experiment in KG8B correlation reflectometer at JET. The system, which is based on the ITMS platform, continuously adapts the sample rate during the acquisition depending on the signal bandwidth. In order to do so it must transfer acquired data to a memory buffer in the host processor and run heavy computational algorithms for each data block. The processing capabilities of the host CPU and the bandwidth of the PXI bus limit the maximum sample rate that can be achieved, therefore limiting the maximum bandwidth of the phenomena that can be studied. Graphic processing units (GPU) are becoming an alternative for speeding up compute intensive kernels of scientific, imaging and simulation applications. However, integrating this technology into data acquisition systems is not a straight forward step, not to mention exploiting their parallelism efficiently. This paper discusses the use of GPUs with new high speed data bus interfaces to improve the performance of the self adaptive sampling rate data acquisition system installed on JET. Integration issues are discussed and performance evaluations are presente

    Rare earth based nanostructured materials: Synthesis, functionalization, properties and bioimaging and biosensing applications

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    Rare earth based nanostructures constitute a type of functional materials widely used and studied in the recent literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a general and comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, with special focus on the commonly employed synthesis methods and functionalization strategies of rare earth based nanoparticles and on their different bioimaging and biosensing applications. The luminescent (including downconversion, upconversion and permanent luminescence) and magnetic properties of rare earth based nanoparticles, as well as their ability to absorb X-rays, will also be explained and connected with their luminescent, magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography bioimaging applications, respectively. This review is not only restricted to nanoparticles, and recent advances reported for in other nanostructures containing rare earths, such as metal organic frameworks and lanthanide complexes conjugated with biological structures, will also be commented on.European Union 267226Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad MAT2014-54852-
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