134 research outputs found

    Transformation Optics, Generalized Cloaking and Superlenses

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    In this paper, transformation optics is presented together with a generalization of invisibility cloaking: instead of an empty region of space, an inhomogeneous structure is transformed via Pendry's map in order to give, to any object hidden in the central hole of the cloak, a completely arbitrary appearance. Other illusion devices based on superlenses considered from the point of view of transformation optics are also discussed.Comment: 7 pages (two columns), 9 figures, to appear in IEEE Trans. Mag., invited paper in Compumag 2009 (Florianopolis, Brasil), corresponding slides available on http://www.fresnel.fr/perso/nicolet

    Hydroacoustic Modeling of Rotor Stator Interaction in Francis Pump-Turbine

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    A one-dimensional hydroacoustic model is set up to perform the numerical simulation of the rotor-stator interaction of a Francis pump-turbine scaled model. The numerical results enable to identify both rotating diametrical modes in the vaneless gap between the 20 guide vanes interacting with the 9 rotating impeller blades and the standing waves in the spiral casing. Moreover, the simulations enlighten the interaction between these rotating diametrical modes and the standing waves

    Hydroacoustic modelling and numerical simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems

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    Hydropower represented in 1999 19% of the world electricity production and the absolute production is expected to grow considerably during the next 30 years. Francis turbines play a major role in the hydroelectric production due to their extended range of application. Due to the deregulated energy market, hydroelectric power plants are increasingly subjecting to off design operation, start-up and shutdown and new control strategies. Consequently, the operation of Francis turbine power plants leads to transients phenomena, risk of resonance or instabilities. The understanding of these propagation phenomena is therefore paramount. This work is a contribution to the hydroacoustic modelling of Francis turbine power plants for the investigation of the aforementioned problematic. The first part of the document presents the modelling of the dynamic behavior and the transient analysis of hydroelectric power plants. Therefore, the one-dimensional model of an elementary pipe is derived from the governing equations, i.e. momentum and continuity equations. The use of appropriate numerical schemes leads to a discrete model of the pipe consisting of a T-shaped equivalent electrical circuit. The accuracy in the frequency domain of the discrete model of the pipe is determined by comparison with the analytical solution of the governing equations. The modelling approach is extended to hydraulic components such as valve, surge tanks, surge shaft, air vessels, cavitation development, etc. Then, the modelling of the Francis, Pelton and Kaplan turbines for transient analysis purposes is presented. This modelling is based on the use of the static characteristic of the turbines. The hydraulic components models are implemented in the EPFL software SIMSEN developed for the simulation of electrical installations. After validation of the hydraulic models, transient phenomena in hydroelectric power plants are investigated. It appears that standard separate studies of either the hydraulic or of the electrical part are valid only for design purposes, while full hydroelectric models are necessary for the optimization of turbine speed governors. The second part of the document deals with the modelling and analysis of possible resonance or operating instabilities in Francis turbine power plants. The review of the excitation sources inherent to Francis turbine operations indicates that the draft tube and the rotor-stator interaction pressure fluctuations are of the major concern. As the modelling of part load pressure fluctuations induced by the cavitating vortex rope that develops in the draft tube at low frequencies is well established, the focus is put on higher frequency phenomena such as higher part load pressure fluctuations and rotorstator interactions or full load instabilities. Three hydroacoustic investigations are performed. (i) Pressure fluctuations identified experimentally at higher part load on a reduced scale model Francis turbine are investigated by means of hydroacoustic simulations and high speed flow visualizations. The resonance of the test rig due to the vortex rope excitation is pointed out by the simulation while the special motion and shape of the cavitating vortex rope at the resonance frequency is highlighted by the visualization. A description of the possible excitation mechanisms is proposed. (ii) A pressure and power surge measured on a 4 × 400 MW pumped-storage plant operating at full load is investigated. The modelling of the entire system, including the hydraulic circuit, the rotating inertias and the electrical installation provides an explanation of the phenomenon and the related conditions of apparition. A non-linear model of the full load vortex rope is established and qualitatively validated. (iii) The rotor-stator interactions (RSI) are studied in the case of a reduced scale pump-turbine model. An original modelling approach of this phenomenon based on the flow distribution between the stationnary and the rotating part is presented. The model provides the RSI pressure fluctuation patterns in the vaneless gap and enables to predict standing waves in the spiral case and adduction pipe. The proposed one-dimensional modelling approach enables the simulation, analysis and optimization of the dynamic behavior of hydroelectric power plants. The approach has proven its capability of simulating properly both transient and periodic phenomena. Such investigations can be undertaken at early stages of a project to assess the possible dynamic problems and to select appropriate solutions ensuring the safest and optimal operation of the facility

    Resonant metamaterial absorbers for infrared spectral filtering: quasimodal analysis, design, fabrication and characterization

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    We present a modal analysis of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) based metamaterials in the far infrared region. These structures can be used as resonant reflection bandcut spectral filters that are independent of the polarization and direction of incidence because of the excitation of quasimodes (modes associated with a complex frequency) leading to quasi-total absorption. We fabricated large area samples made of chromium nanorod gratings on top of Si/Cr layers deposited on silicon substrate and measurements by Fourier Transform spectrophotometry show good agreement with finite element simulations. A quasimodal expansion method is developed to obtain a reduced order model that fits very well full wave simulations and that highlights excitation conditions of the modes.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figure

    Continuity of care of Swiss residents aged 50+: a longitudinal study using claims data

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    Background Continuity of care (COC) should be measured for healthcare quality monitoring and evaluation and is a key process indicator for integrated care. Measurement of COC using routinely collected data is widespread, but there is no consensus on which indicator to use and the relevant time horizon to apply. Information about COC is especially warranted in highly fragmented healthcare systems, such as in Switzerland. Our study aimed to compare COC measures in Swiss residents aged 50+ obtained with various indices and time horizons. Methods Using insurance claims data, we computed and compared several commonly used visit-based Continuity of Care Indices (COCIs): Bice-Boxerman Index, Usual Provider of Care, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Modified, Modified Continuity Index and Modified Continuity Index, based on all doctor visits and on primary care (PC) visits only. Indices were computed over short (1 year) and medium (4 years) terms. Results The mean indices based on all visits varied between 0.51 and 0.77, while PC indices presented less variation with a median of 1.00 for all but one index. Indices focusing on a variety of individual providers decreased with time horizon, while indices focusing on the overall number of visits and providers showed the opposite trend. These findings suggest fundamental differences in the interpretation of COCIs. Conclusions Broad COC appeared moderately low in Switzerland, although comparable to other countries, and PC COC was close to one. The choice of indices and time horizon influenced their interpretation. Understanding these differences is key to select the appropriate index for the monitoring of COC

    Methodology for Risk Assessment of Part Load Resonance in Francis Turbine Power Plant

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    At low flow rate operation, Francis turbines feature a cavitating vortex rope in the draft tube resulting from the swirling flow of the runner outlet. The unsteady pressure field related to the precession of the vortex rope induces plane wave propagating in the entire hydraulic system. The frequency of the vortex rope precession being comprised between 0.2 and 0.4 times the turbine rotational speed, there is a risk of resonance between the hydraulic circuit, the synchronous machine and the turbine itself an acting as excitation source. This paper presents a systematic methodology for the assessment of the resonance risk for a given Francis turbine power plant. The test case investigated is a 1GW 4 Francis turbines power plant. The methodology is based on a transient simulation of the dynamic behavior of the whole power plant considering a 1D model of the hydraulic installation, comprising gallery, surge chamber, penstock, Francis turbine but also mechanical masses, synchronous machines, transformer, grid model, speed and voltage regulators. A stochastic excitation having energy uniformly distributed in the frequency range of interest is taken into account in the draft tube. As the vortex rope volume has a strong influence on the natural frequencies of the hydraulic system, the wave speed in the draft tube is considered as a parameter for the investigation. The transient simulation points out the key excitation frequencies and the draft tube wave speed producing resonance between the vortex rope excitation and the circuit and provide a good evaluation of the impact on power quality. The comparison with scale model tests results allows resonance risk assessment in the early stage of project pre-study

    Cavitation influence on hydroacoustic resonance in pipe

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    In pipe systems, pressure and flow fluctuations below cutoff frequency propagate as plane waves along pipes. Depending on the pipe length and propagation velocity, resonance leading to high amplitude pressure fluctuation may occur. At low pressure, cavitation is an important source of fluctuation. Beside its active role in the mechanism of noise generation, the cavitation reflects partially the incoming plane waves. This may modify the values of the eigenfrequencies of the system consisting of the pipe, the contained fluid and the vapor cavity. The influence of cavitation is experimentally investigated in a hydroacoustic resonator: a straight pipe connecting two tanks. At three quarters of the pipe length, a bluff body is placed cross flow to generate periodic vortex wake cavitation in a limited section of the pipe. The analysis of the wall pressure measurements along the hydroacoustic resonator results is performed with the help of a one-dimensional transient model of the pipe including the compliance of the cavities created in the wake of the bluff body. The results of the numerical simulations enable the determination of both the eigenvalues within the resulting system of equations and the mode shape of the pressure fluctuations corresponding to the experimental results

    Simulation of water column separation in Francis pump-turbine draft tube

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    The paper presents the modelling, simulation and analysis of the transient behaviour of a 340 MW pump-turbine in case of emergency shutdown in turbine mode with focus on possible draft tube water column separation. The model of a pumped storage power plant with simplified layout is presented. This model includes a penstock feeding one 340MW pump-turbine with the related rotating inertia and a tailrace tunnel. The model of the tailrace tunnel allowing for water column separation simulation is introduced. The simulation results of the transient behaviour of the pump-turbine in case of emergency shutdown in generating mode, with and without downstream water column separation model are presented for different degree of severity triggered by the submergence and the tailrace tunnel length. The amplitudes of the pressure peaks induced by the cavity collapse are analysed with respect to the pressure drop magnitude and tailrace dimensions. The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes obtained along the tailrace tunnel are analysed for different test case conditions

    Nanomechanical properties of solvent cast polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer blends and self-assembled block copolymers

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    © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). The nanomechanical properties of solvent-cast polymer thin films have been investigated using PeakForce™ Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping. The samples consisted of films of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) obtained after the dewetting of toluene solution on a polymeric brush layer. Additionally, we have probed the mechanical properties of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) block copolymers (BCP) as randomly oriented thin films. The probed films have a critical thickness <50 nm and present features to be resolved <42 nm. The Young's modulus values obtained through several nanoindentation experiments present a good agreement with previous literature, suggesting that the PeakForce™ technique could be crucial for BCP investigations, e.g., as a predictor of the mechanical stability of the different phases.This work was partially funded by the projects SNM (FP7-ICT-2011-8) and FORCE-for-FUTURE (CSD2010-00024).Peer Reviewe
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