109 research outputs found

    Human granzyme B regulatory B cells prevent effector CD4+CD25- T cell proliferation through a mechanism dependent from lymphotoxin alpha

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    IntroductionHuman Granzyme B (GZMB) regulatory B cells (Bregs) have suppressive properties on CD4+ effector T cells by a mechanism partially dependent on GZMB. Moreover, these cells may be easily induced in vitro making them interesting for cell therapy.MethodsWe characterized this population of in vitro induced GZMB+Bregs using single cell transcriptomics. To investigate their regulatory properties, Bregs or total B cells were also co-cultured with T cells and scRNAseq was used to identify receptor ligand interactions and to reveal gene expression changes in the T cells.ResultsWe find that Bregs exhibit a unique set of 149 genes differentially expressed and which are implicated in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and altered antigen presentation capacity consistent with their differentiated B cells profile. Notably, Bregs induced a strong inhibition of T cell genes associated to proliferation, activation, inflammation and apoptosis compared to total B cells. We identified and validated 5 receptor/ligand interactions between Bregs and T cells. Functional analysis using specific inhibitors was used to test their suppressive properties and we identified Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) as a new and potent Breg ligand implicated in Breg suppressive properties.DiscussionWe report for the first time for a role of LTA in GZMB+Bregs as an enhancer of GZMB expression, and involved in the suppressive properties of GZMB+Bregs in human. The exact mechanism of LTA/GZMB function in this specific subset of Bregs remains to be determined

    The Blood of Healthy Individuals Exhibits CD8 T Cells with a Highly Altered TCR Vb Repertoire but with an Unmodified Phenotype

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    CD8 T cell clonal expansions (TCE) have been observed in elderly, healthy individuals as well in old mice, and have been associated with the ageing process. Both chronic latent and non-persistent viral infections have been proposed to drive the development of distinct non-functional and functional TCE respectively. Biases in TCR Vβ repertoire diversity are also recurrently observed in patients that have undergone strong immune challenge, and are preferentially observed in the CD8 compartment. Healthy adults can also exhibit CD8 T cells with strong alterations of their CDR3 length distribution. Surprisingly, no specific investigations have been conducted to analyze the CD8 T cell repertoire in normal adults, to determine if such alterations in TCR Vβ repertoire share the features of TCE. In this study, we characterized the phenotype and function of the CD8 population in healthy individuals of 25–52 years of age. All but one of the EBV-positive HLA-B8 healthy volunteers that were studied were CMV-negative. Using a specific unsupervised statistical method, we identified Vβ families with altered CDR3 length distribution and increased TCR Vβ/HPRT transcript ratios in all individuals tested. The increase in TCR Vβ/HPRT transcript ratio was more frequently associated with an increase in the percentage of the corresponding Vβ+ T cells than with an absence of modification of their percentage. However, in contrast with the previously described TCE, these CD8+ T cells were not preferentially found in the memory CD8 subset, they exhibited normal effector functions (cytokine secretion and cytotoxic molecule expression) and they were not reactive to a pool of EBV/CMV/Flu virus peptides. Taken together, the combined analysis of transcripts and proteins of the TCR Vβ repertoire led to the identification of different types of CD8+ T cell clone expansion or contraction in healthy individuals, a situation that appears more complex than previously described in aged individuals

    Abordagem por Competências no Currículo Escolar em Cabo Verde: Desfazendo Equívocos para uma Mudança Significativa nas Políticas e Práxis Educacionais

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    A abordagem curricular por competências, enquanto fenómeno recente no discurso educativo em Cabo Verde, corre o risco de não passar de mero modismo, sem se traduzir numa inovação efectiva ao nível das práxis educacionais, se não for correctamente compreendida pelos diversos actores envolvidos na obra educativa e, em particular, nos processos de deliberação, gestão e realização dos currículos escolares. O presente artigo procura esclarecer alguns equívocos que em Cabo Verde, como em outras latitudes, acompanham a defesa da pedagogia por competências. Assim, importa elucidar que a abordagem curricular por competências vem aprofundar, entre outras, as abordagens por conteúdos e por objectivos e não, pura e simplesmente, substituí-las, por serem, alegadamente, tradicionais. Outrossim, no contexto da educação escolar, as competências não devem ser encaradas numa perspectiva redutora, focalizada na transferibilidade de conhecimentos para o mercado de trabalho, mas, fundamentalmente, no sentido da mobilização do conhecimento escolar para a resolução dos problemas nos diversos contextos ou situações da vida, que não se esgota no mercado

    Cytotoxic CD8<sup>+</sup> T lymphocytes expressing ALS-causing SOD1 mutant selectively trigger death of spinal motoneurons.

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    Adaptive immune response is part of the dynamic changes that accompany motoneuron loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). CD4 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cells that regulate a protective immunity during the neurodegenerative process have received the most attention. CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cells are also observed in the spinal cord of patients and ALS mice although their contribution to the disease still remains elusive. Here, we found that activated CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T lymphocytes infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) of a mouse model of ALS at the symptomatic stage. Selective ablation of CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cells in mice expressing the ALS-associated superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) &lt;sup&gt;G93A&lt;/sup&gt; mutant decreased spinal motoneuron loss. Using motoneuron-CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cell coculture systems, we found that mutant SOD1-expressing CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T lymphocytes selectively kill motoneurons. This cytotoxicity activity requires the recognition of the peptide-MHC-I complex (where MHC-I represents major histocompatibility complex class I). Measurement of interaction strength by atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy demonstrated a specific MHC-I-dependent interaction between motoneuron and SOD1 &lt;sup&gt; G93A &lt;/sup&gt; CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cells. Activated mutant SOD1 CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cells produce interferon-γ, which elicits the expression of the MHC-I complex in motoneurons and exerts their cytotoxic function through Fas and granzyme pathways. In addition, analysis of the clonal diversity of CD8 &lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; T cells in the periphery and CNS of ALS mice identified an antigen-restricted repertoire of their T cell receptor in the CNS. Our results suggest that self-directed immune response takes place during the course of the disease, contributing to the selective elimination of a subset of motoneurons in ALS

    Kidney allograft rejection is associated with an imbalance of B cells, regulatory T cells and differentiated CD28-CD8+ T cells: analysis of a cohort of 1095 graft biopsies

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    IntroductionThe human immune system contains cells with either effector/memory or regulatory functions. Besides the well-established CD4+CD25hiCD127lo regulatory T cells (Tregs), we and others have shown that B cells can also have regulatory functions since their frequency and number are increased in kidney graft tolerance and B cell depletion as induction therapy may lead to acute rejection. On the other hand, we have shown that CD28-CD8+ T cells represent a subpopulation with potent effector/memory functions. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that kidney allograft rejection may be linked to an imbalance of effector/memory and regulatory immune cells.MethodsBased on a large cohort of more than 1000 kidney graft biopsies with concomitant peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping, we investigated the association between kidney graft rejection and the percentage and absolute number of circulating B cells, Tregs, as well as the ratio of B cells to CD28-CD8+ T cells and the ratio of CD28-CD8+ T cells to Tregs. Kidney graft biopsies were interpreted according to the Banff classification and divided into 5 biopsies groups: 1) normal/subnormal, 2) interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade 2/3 (IFTA), 3) antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), 4) T cell mediated-rejection (TCMR), and 5) borderline rejection. We compared group 1 with the other groups as well as with a combined group 3, 4, and 5 (rejection of all types) using multivariable linear mixed models.Results and discussionWe found that compared to normal/subnormal biopsies, rejection of all types was marginally associated with a decrease in the percentage of circulating B cells (p=0.06) and significantly associated with an increase in the ratio of CD28-CD8+ T cells to Tregs (p=0.01). Moreover, ABMR, TCMR (p=0.007), and rejection of all types (p=0.0003) were significantly associated with a decrease in the ratio of B cells to CD28-CD8+ T cells compared to normal/subnormal biopsies. Taken together, our results show that kidney allograft rejection is associated with an imbalance between immune cells with effector/memory functions and those with regulatory properties

    Cross-Reactivity of Herpesvirus-Specific CD8 T Cell Lines Toward Allogeneic Class I MHC Molecules

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    Although association between persistent viral infection and allograft rejection is well characterized, few examples of T-cell cross-reactivity between self-MHC/viral and allogeneic HLA molecules have been documented so far. We appraised in this study the alloreactivity of CD8 T cell lines specific for immunodominant epitopes from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). CD8 T cell lines were generated after sorting with immunomagnetic beads coated with either pp65495–503/A*0201, BMLF1259–267/A*0201, or BZLF154–64/B*3501 multimeric complexes. Alloreactivity of the CD8 T cell lines against allogeneic class I MHC alleles was assessed by screening of (i) TNF-α production against COS-7 cells transfected with as many as 39 individual HLA class I-encoding cDNA, and (ii) cytotoxicity activity toward a large panel of HLA-typed EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines. We identified several cross-reactive pp65/A*0201-specific T cell lines toward allogeneic HLA-A*3001, A*3101, or A*3201. Moreover, we described here cross-recognition of HLA-Cw*0602 by BZLF1/B*3501-specific T cells. It is noteworthy that these alloreactive CD8 T cell lines showed efficient recognition of endothelial cells expressing the relevant HLA class I allele, with high level TNF-α production and cytotoxicity activity. Taken together, our data support the notion that herpes virus-specific T cells recognizing allo-HLA alleles may promote solid organ rejection
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