103 research outputs found

    Independent and combined effects of all-out sprint and low-intensity continuous exercise on plasma oxidative stress biomarkers in trained judokas

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    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress biomarkers prior to and following different forms of exercise. Ten elite male judokas (age: 18.1±1.7 years, athletic experience: 6 years with a training frequency of 6 Judo-sessions/week) performed three cycle ergometry sessions comprising a 30s Wingate test (MAX), 30 min at 60% maximal-aerobic-power-output (LOW) or these two exercise protocols combined (COMBINED) in a repeated-measures design. Venous blood-samples were collected before, and 0(P0), 5(P5), 10(P10) and 20(P20) min after each exercise protocol and assessed for malondialdehyde concentration ([MDA]), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) content, and total-antioxidant-status (TAS). Plasma [MDA] was found to be increased above baseline at P0 and P5 in the MAX, LOW and COMBINED conditions (p<0.05), but was greater at P10 and P20 in the LOW condition compared to MAX and COMBINED conditions (p<0.05). Plasma GPX and SOD content increased above baseline at P0 in MAX and COMBINED and at P5 in LOW (p<0.05), with GR content being similar between groups at P0 and P5 (p>0.05). Twenty min post-exercise, plasma GPX, SOD, GR content and TAS were lower in the MAX compared to the LOW and COMBINED conditions (p<0.05). In conclusion, the findings from this study reveal that redox-related biomarkers exhibited divergent response dynamics following different forms of exercise, which might have implications for understanding the mechanisms of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and adaptive remodeling

    Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses

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    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 ± 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, before and after a 4-week training program and 1 week of tapering. One group performed 30-m sprints with one change of direction (RSA group, RSAG), whereas the other group performed multidirectional 30-m sprints (RSM group, RSMG). Both groups improved in all scores in the post-intervention measurements (P < 0.05), except for the fatigue index in the RSM test. However, when comparing the two groups, similar effects were found for almost all parameters of the tests applied, except for RPE in the RSA test, which had a greater decrease in the RSAG (from 8.7 to 5.9) than in the RSMG (from 8.5 to 6.6, P = 0.021). We can conclude that repeated 30-m sprints, either with one change of direction or multidirectional, induce similar physiological and performance responses in young basketball players, but have a different psycho-physiological impact

    Does observance of Ramadan affect sleep in athletes and physically active individuals? A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    This article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide an accurate description of the effect of Ramadan observance on sleep duration, sleep quality, daily nap duration, and daytime sleepiness in athletes and physically active individuals

    Systematic review and meta-analysis of the co-occurrence of atrial fibrillation and liver transplantation: a lethal combination

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    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed to evaluate the role of new-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) in patients after liver transplantation (LT) and determine the effect of NOAF on the incidence of mortality and graft rejection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Published studies until the end of April 15, 2023, were systematically searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality and graft rejection were extracted. RESULTS: Five studies with a total of 4788 unique post-LT patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed that mortality in patients with and without NOAF varied and amounted to 24.1% vs. 12.5%, respectively (OR = 2.51; 95%CI: 1.92 to 3.27; p &lt; 0.001). Moreover, pooled analysis showed that graft rejection in the NOAF cohort was 26.3%, and was higher vs. patients without NOAF (13.1%; OR = 2.98; 95%CI: 2.14 to 4.15; p &lt; 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Post-LT NOAF is associated with increased mortality and a higher risk of graft rejection. It is likely that the development of a standard procedure for early identification of NOAF, as well as to develop recommendations for specific treatment targeted at avoiding the impacts of the illness, could provide a mortality reduction and provide an increased rate of successful LT

    Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players: Multi-direction vs. One-Change of Direction (Part 1)

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    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of a novel multi-direction repeated sprint ability (RSA) test [RSM; 10 7 (6 7 5-m)] compared with a RSA with one change of direction [10 7 (2 7 15-m)], and the relationship of the RSM and RSA with Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and jump performances [squat jump (SJ) and counter-movement-jump (CMJ)]. Thirty-six (male, n = 14, female n = 22) young basketball players (age 16.0 \ub1 0.9 yrs) performed the RSM, RSA, Yo-Yo IR1, SJ, and CMJ, and were re-tested only for RSM and RSA after 1 week. The absolute error of reliability (standard error of the measurement) was lower than 0.212 and 0.617-s for the time variables of the RSA and RSM test, respectively. Performance in the RSA and RSM test significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ. The best time, worst time, and total time of the RSA and RSM test were negatively correlated with Yo-Yo IR1 distance. Based on these findings, consistent with previously published studies, it was concluded that the novel RSM test was valid and reliable

    Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses

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    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 \ub1 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, before and after a 4-week training program and 1 week of tapering. One group performed 30-m sprints with one change of direction (RSA group, RSAG), whereas the other group performed multidirectional 30-m sprints (RSM group, RSMG). Both groups improved in all scores in the post-intervention measurements (P &lt; 0.05), except for the fatigue index in the RSM test. However, when comparing the two groups, similar effects were found for almost all parameters of the tests applied, except for RPE in the RSA test, which had a greater decrease in the RSAG (from 8.7 to 5.9) than in the RSMG (from 8.5 to 6.6, P = 0.021). We can conclude that repeated 30-m sprints, either with one change of direction or multidirectional, induce similar physiological and performance responses in young basketball players, but have a different psycho-physiological impact

    Effects of weight divisions in time-motion of female high-level Brazilian Jiu-jitsu combat behaviors

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    Coaches and psychologists can use time-motion analysis to elaborate specific interventions for female BJJ athletes, increasing specific training context and reducing unnecessary psychological and physical demands and injuries. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze high-level BJJ female athletes in the 2020 Pan-American Games by comparing the weight categories on the time-motion analysis. The time-motion analysis (i.e., approach, gripping, attack, defensive actions, transition, mounting, guard, side control, and submissions) of 422 high-level female BJJ combats was divided and compared by weight category as follows: Rooster (n = 8), Light Feather (n = 18), Feather (n = 122), Light (n = 84), Middle (n = 74), Medium Heavy (n = 44), Heavy (n = 36), Super Heavy (n = 36), using p ≤ 0.05. The main results indicated that the Super heavyweight category [3.1 (5.8;119.9) s] had a shorter gripping time than other weight categories, p ≤ 0.05. In contrast, roosters [7.2 (3.5;64.6) s] had longer gripping, transition [14.0 (4.8;29.6) s], and attack time [76.2 (27.7, 93.2)] than the light feather, middlers, and heavier weight categories, p ≤ 0.05. These findings should be considered for the psychological interventions and training prescription

    Sleep Quality and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mental Wellbeing Variance in Older Adults during COVID-19 Lockdown:ECLB COVID-19 International Online Survey

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    Background. The COVID-19 lockdown could engender disruption to lifestyle behaviors, thus impairing mental wellbeing in the general population. This study investigated whether sociodemographic variables, changes in physical activity, and sleep quality from pre- to during lockdown were predictors of change in mental wellbeing in quarantined older adults. Methods. A 12-week international online survey was launched in 14 languages on 6 April 2020. Forty-one research institutions from Europe, Western-Asia, North-Africa, and the Americas, promoted the survey. The survey was presented in a differential format with questions related to responses "pre" and "during" the lockdown period. Participants responded to the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results. Replies from older adults (aged &gt;55 years, n = 517), mainly from Europe (50.1%), Western-Asia (6.8%), America (30%), and North-Africa (9.3%) were analyzed. The COVID-19 lockdown led to significantly decreased mental wellbeing, sleep quality, and total physical activity energy expenditure levels (all p &lt; 0.001). Regression analysis showed that the change in total PSQI score and total physical activity energy expenditure (F-(2,F- 514) = 66.41 p &lt; 0.001) were significant predictors of the decrease in mental wellbeing from pre- to during lockdown (p &lt; 0.001, R-2: 0.20). Conclusion. COVID-19 lockdown deleteriously affected physical activity and sleep patterns. Furthermore, change in the total PSQI score and total physical activity energy expenditure were significant predictors for the decrease in mental wellbeing.</p

    Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016–40

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    Background: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040. Methods: We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario. These estimates were generated using an ensemble of models that varied key demographic and socioeconomic determinants. We generated better and worse alternative future scenarios based on the global distribution of historic health spending growth rates. Last, we used stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the association between pooled health resources and UHC index, a measure of a country's UHC service coverage. Finally, we estimated future UHC performance and the number of people covered under the three future scenarios. Findings: In the reference scenario, global health spending was projected to increase from US10trillion(9510 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 10 trillion to 10 trillion) in 2015 to 20 trillion (18 trillion to 22 trillion) in 2040. Per capita health spending was projected to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 4·2% (3·4–5·1) per year, followed by lower-middle-income countries (4·0%, 3·6–4·5) and low-income countries (2·2%, 1·7–2·8). Despite global growth, per capita health spending was projected to range from only 40(24–65)to40 (24–65) to 413 (263–668) in 2040 in low-income countries, and from 140(90–200)to140 (90–200) to 1699 (711–3423) in lower-middle-income countries. Globally, the share of health spending covered by pooled resources would range widely, from 19·8% (10·3–38·6) in Nigeria to 97·9% (96·4–98·5) in Seychelles. Historical performance on the UHC index was significantly associated with pooled resources per capita. Across the alternative scenarios, we estimate UHC reaching between 5·1 billion (4·9 billion to 5·3 billion) and 5·6 billion (5·3 billion to 5·8 billion) lives in 2030. Interpretation: We chart future scenarios for health spending and its relationship with UHC. Ensuring that all countries have sustainable pooled health resources is crucial to the achievement of UHC. Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
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