24 research outputs found

    Non-linear Holographic Entanglement Entropy Inequalities for Single Boundary 2D CFT

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    Significant work has gone into determining the minimal set of entropy inequalities that determine the holographic entropy cone. Holographic systems with three or more parties have been shown to obey additional inequalities that generic quantum systems do not. We consider a two dimensional conformal field theory that is a single boundary of a holographic system and find four additional non-linear inequalities which are derived from strong subadditivity and the formula for the entanglement entropy of a region on the conformal field theory. We also present an equality obtained by application of a hyperbolic extension of Ptolemy's theorem to a two dimensional conformal field theory.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Schur-Weyl Duality for the Clifford Group with Applications: Property Testing, a Robust Hudson Theorem, and de Finetti Representations

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    Schur-Weyl duality is a ubiquitous tool in quantum information. At its heart is the statement that the space of operators that commute with the tensor powers of all unitaries is spanned by the permutations of the tensor factors. In this work, we describe a similar duality theory for tensor powers of Clifford unitaries. The Clifford group is a central object in many subfields of quantum information, most prominently in the theory of fault-tolerance. The duality theory has a simple and clean description in terms of finite geometries. We demonstrate its effectiveness in several applications: (1) We resolve an open problem in quantum property testing by showing that "stabilizerness" is efficiently testable: There is a protocol that, given access to six copies of an unknown state, can determine whether it is a stabilizer state, or whether it is far away from the set of stabilizer states. We give a related membership test for the Clifford group. (2) We find that tensor powers of stabilizer states have an increased symmetry group. We provide corresponding de Finetti theorems, showing that the reductions of arbitrary states with this symmetry are well-approximated by mixtures of stabilizer tensor powers (in some cases, exponentially well). (3) We show that the distance of a pure state to the set of stabilizers can be lower-bounded in terms of the sum-negativity of its Wigner function. This gives a new quantitative meaning to the sum-negativity (and the related mana) -- a measure relevant to fault-tolerant quantum computation. The result constitutes a robust generalization of the discrete Hudson theorem. (4) We show that complex projective designs of arbitrary order can be obtained from a finite number (independent of the number of qudits) of Clifford orbits. To prove this result, we give explicit formulas for arbitrary moments of random stabilizer states.Comment: 60 pages, 2 figure

    Multipartite Entanglement in Stabilizer Tensor Networks

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    Despite the fundamental importance of quantum entanglement in many-body systems, our understanding is mostly limited to bipartite situations. Indeed, even defining appropriate notions of multipartite entanglement is a significant challenge for general quantum systems. In this work, we initiate the study of multipartite entanglement in a rich, yet tractable class of quantum states called stabilizer tensor networks. We demonstrate that, for generic stabilizer tensor networks, the geometry of the tensor network informs the multipartite entanglement structure of the state. In particular, we show that the average number of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triples that can be extracted from a stabilizer tensor network is small, implying that tripartite entanglement is scarce. This, in turn, restricts the higher-partite entanglement structure of the states. Recent research in quantum gravity found that stabilizer tensor networks reproduce important structural features of the AdS / CFT correspondence, including the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the entanglement entropy and certain quantum error correction properties. Our results imply a new operational interpretation of the monogamy of the Ryu-Takayanagi mutual information and an entropic diagnostic for higher-partite entanglement. Our technical contributions include a spin model for evaluating the average GHZ content of stabilizer tensor networks, as well as a novel formula for the third moment of random stabilizer states, which we expect to find further applications in quantum information

    Error Correction of Quantum Reference Frame Information

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    The existence of quantum error-correcting codes is one of the most counterintuitive and potentially technologically important discoveries of quantum-information theory. In this paper, we study a problem called “covariant quantum error correction”, in which the encoding is required to be group covariant. This problem is intimately tied to fault-tolerant quantum computation and the well-known Eastin-Knill theorem. We show that this problem is equivalent to the problem of encoding reference-frame information. In standard quantum error correction, one seeks to protect abstract quantum information, i.e., information that is independent of the physical incarnation of the systems used for storing the information. There are, however, other forms of information that are physical—one of the most ubiquitous being reference-frame information. The basic question we seek to answer is whether or not error correction of physical information is possible and, if so, what limitations govern the process. The main challenge is that the systems used for transmitting physical information, in addition to any actions applied to them, must necessarily obey these limitations. Encoding and decoding operations that obey a restrictive set of limitations need not exist a priori. Equivalently, there may not exist covariant quantum error-correcting codes. Indeed, we prove a no-go theorem showing that no finite-dimensional, group-covariant quantum codes exist for Lie groups with an infinitesimal generator [e.g., U(1), SU(2), and SO(3)]. We then explain how one can circumvent this no-go theorem using infinite-dimensional codes, and we give an explicit example of a covariant quantum error-correcting code using continuous variables for the group U(1). Finally, we demonstrate that all finite groups have finite-dimensional codes, giving both an explicit construction and a randomized approximate construction with exponentially better parameters. Our results imply that one can, in principle, circumvent the Eastin-Knill theorem

    Holographic duality from random tensor networks

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    Tensor networks provide a natural framework for exploring holographic duality because they obey entanglement area laws. They have been used to construct explicit toy models realizing many interesting structural features of the AdS/CFT correspondence, including the non-uniqueness of bulk operator reconstruction in the boundary theory. In this article, we explore the holographic properties of networks of random tensors. We find that our models naturally incorporate many features that are analogous to those of the AdS/CFT correspondence. When the bond dimension of the tensors is large, we show that the entanglement entropy of boundary regions, whether connected or not, obey the Ryu-Takayanagi entropy formula, a fact closely related to known properties of the multipartite entanglement of assistance. Moreover, we find that each boundary region faithfully encodes the physics of the entire bulk entanglement wedge. Our method is to interpret the average over random tensors as the partition function of a classical ferromagnetic Ising model, so that the minimal surfaces of Ryu-Takayanagi appear as domain walls. Upon including the analog of a bulk field, we find that our model reproduces the expected corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi formula: the minimal surface is displaced and the entropy is augmented by the entanglement of the bulk field. Increasing the entanglement of the bulk field ultimately changes the minimal surface topologically in a way similar to creation of a black hole. Extrapolating bulk correlation functions to the boundary permits the calculation of the scaling dimensions of boundary operators, which exhibit a large gap between a small number of low-dimension operators and the rest. While we are primarily motivated by AdS/CFT duality, our main results define a more general form of bulk-boundary correspondence which could be useful for extending holography to other spacetimes.Comment: 57 pages, 13 figure

    Matchgate benchmarking: Scalable benchmarking of a continuous family of many-qubit gates

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    We propose a method to reliably and efficiently extract the fidelity of many-qubit quantum circuits composed of continuously parametrized two-qubit gates called matchgates. This method, which we call matchgate benchmarking, relies on advanced techniques from randomized benchmarking as well as insights from the representation theory of matchgate circuits. We argue the formal correctness and scalability of the protocol, and moreover deploy it to estimate the performance of matchgate circuits generated by two-qubit XY spin interactions on a quantum processor.Comment: 4+11 pages, 1 figur

    The Holographic Entropy Cone

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    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory

    Continuous Symmetries and Approximate Quantum Error Correction

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    Quantum error correction and symmetry arise in many areas of physics, including many-body systems, metrology in the presence of noise, fault-tolerant computation, and holographic quantum gravity. Here, we study the compatibility of these two important principles. If a logical quantum system is encoded into n physical subsystems, we say that the code is covariant with respect to a symmetry group G if a G transformation on the logical system can be realized by performing transformations on the individual subsystems. For a G-covariant code with G a continuous group, we derive a lower bound on the error-correction infidelity following erasure of a subsystem. This bound approaches zero when the number of subsystems nor the dimension d of each subsystem is large. We exhibit codes achieving approximately the same scaling of infidelity with n or d as the lower bound. Leveraging tools from representation theory, we prove an approximate version of the Eastin-Knill theorem for quantum computation: If a code admits a universal set of transversal gates and corrects erasure with fixed accuracy, then, for each logical qubit, we need a number of physical qubits per subsystem that is inversely proportional to the error parameter. We construct codes covariant with respect to the full logical unitary group, achieving good accuracy for large d (using random codes) or n (using codes based on W states). We systematically construct codes covariant with respect to general groups, obtaining natural generalizations of qubit codes to, for instance, oscillators and rotors. In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, our approach provides insight into how time evolution in the bulk corresponds to time evolution on the boundary without violating the Eastin-Knill theorem, and our five-rotor code can be stacked to form a covariant holographic code
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