28,704 research outputs found

    A dinosaur trackway from the Purbeck Beds of Swanage, England

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    During 1962 a dinosaur trackway was unearthed in a quarry of Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous building-stone at Langton Maltravers near Swanage. The primary tracks had been removed initially but secondary impressions were still visible and these were marked with black paint. It was concluded that the prints were made by a tridactyl bipedal species of dinosaur, probably of megalosaurian type. A quantity of overburden covered part of the trackway and it was arranged for this to be removed so that the primary tracks could be collected. The trackway, which was 22 metres long as preserved, showed a somewhat sinuous gait of a true biped with no tail-drag and only occasional evidence of what may have been front foot impressions. Two individuals had made the footprints, walking on a similar course about one metre apart. The tracks of these two were collected, as was a third trackway which went off at an angle to the right. Above the stratum containing the prints was another layer which contained prints of an undoubted iguanodontid type

    The Dwarfs Beyond: The Stellar-to-Halo Mass Relation for a New Sample of Intermediate Redshift Low Mass Galaxies

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    A number of recent challenges to the standard Lambda-CDM paradigm relate to discrepancies that arise in comparing the abundance and kinematics of local dwarf galaxies with the predictions of numerical simulations. Such arguments rely heavily on the assumption that the local dwarf and satellite galaxies form a representative distribution in terms of their stellar-to-halo mass ratios. To address this question, we present new, deep spectroscopy using DEIMOS on Keck for 82 low mass (10^7-10^9 solar masses) star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift (z=0.2-1). For 50 percent of these we are able to determine resolved rotation curves using nebular emission lines and thereby construct the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation to masses as low as 10^7 solar masses. Using scaling relations determined from weak lensing data, we convert this to a stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) relation for comparison with abundance matching predictions. We find a discrepancy between the propagated predictions from simulations compared to our observations, and suggest possible reasons for this as well as future tests that will be more effective.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, submitted to ApJ, comments welcom

    The first-mover advantage in scientific publication

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    Mathematical models of the scientific citation process predict a strong "first-mover" effect under which the first papers in a field will, essentially regardless of content, receive citations at a rate enormously higher than papers published later. Moreover papers are expected to retain this advantage in perpetuity -- they should receive more citations indefinitely, no matter how many other papers are published after them. We test this conjecture against data from a selection of fields and in several cases find a first-mover effect of a magnitude similar to that predicted by the theory. Were we wearing our cynical hat today, we might say that the scientist who wants to become famous is better off -- by a wide margin -- writing a modest paper in next year's hottest field than an outstanding paper in this year's. On the other hand, there are some papers, albeit only a small fraction, that buck the trend and attract significantly more citations than theory predicts despite having relatively late publication dates. We suggest that papers of this kind, though they often receive comparatively few citations overall, are probably worthy of our attention.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    MonALISA : A Distributed Monitoring Service Architecture

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    The MonALISA (Monitoring Agents in A Large Integrated Services Architecture) system provides a distributed monitoring service. MonALISA is based on a scalable Dynamic Distributed Services Architecture which is designed to meet the needs of physics collaborations for monitoring global Grid systems, and is implemented using JINI/JAVA and WSDL/SOAP technologies. The scalability of the system derives from the use of multithreaded Station Servers to host a variety of loosely coupled self-describing dynamic services, the ability of each service to register itself and then to be discovered and used by any other services, or clients that require such information, and the ability of all services and clients subscribing to a set of events (state changes) in the system to be notified automatically. The framework integrates several existing monitoring tools and procedures to collect parameters describing computational nodes, applications and network performance. It has built-in SNMP support and network-performance monitoring algorithms that enable it to monitor end-to-end network performance as well as the performance and state of site facilities in a Grid. MonALISA is currently running around the clock on the US CMS test Grid as well as an increasing number of other sites. It is also being used to monitor the performance and optimize the interconnections among the reflectors in the VRVS system.Comment: Talk from the 2003 Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP03), La Jolla, Ca, USA, March 2003, 8 pages, pdf. PSN MOET00

    Search for Lorentz Invariance and CPT Violation with the MINOS Far Detector

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    We searched for a sidereal modulation in the MINOS far detector neutrino rate. Such a signal would be a consequence of Lorentz and CPT violation as described by the standard-model extension framework. It also would be the first detection of a perturbative effect to conventional neutrino mass oscillations. We found no evidence for this sidereal signature, and the upper limits placed on the magnitudes of the Lorentz and CPT violating coefficients describing the theory are an improvement by factors of 20–510 over the current best limits found by using the MINOS near detector

    Improved Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Disappearance in MINOS

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    We report an improved measurement of ν̅_μ disappearance over a distance of 735 km using the MINOS detectors and the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam in a ν̅_μ-enhanced configuration. From a total exposure of 2.95×10^20 protons on target, of which 42% have not been previously analyzed, we make the most precise measurement of Δm̅^2=[2.62_(-0.28)^(+0.31)(stat)±0.09(syst)]×10^(-3)  eV^2 and constrain the ν_μ mixing angle sin^(2)(2θ̅)>0.75 (90% C.L.). These values are in agreement with Δm^2 and sin^(2)(2θ) measured for νμ, removing the tension reported in [ P. Adamson et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 021801 (2011)]

    Spinning BTZ Black Hole versus Kerr Black Hole : A Closer Look

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    By applying Newman's algorithm, the AdS_3 rotating black hole solution is ``derived'' from the nonrotating black hole solution of Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ). The rotating BTZ solution derived in this fashion is given in ``Boyer-Lindquist-type'' coordinates whereas the form of the solution originally given by BTZ is given in a kind of an ``unfamiliar'' coordinates which are related to each other by a transformation of time coordinate alone. The relative physical meaning between these two time coordinates is carefully studied. Since the Kerr-type and Boyer-Lindquist-type coordinates for rotating BTZ solution are newly found via Newman's algorithm, next, the transformation to Kerr-Schild-type coordinates is looked for. Indeed, such transformation is found to exist. And in this Kerr-Schild-type coordinates, truely maximal extension of its global structure by analytically continuing to ``antigravity universe'' region is carried out.Comment: 17 pages, 1 figure, Revtex, Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Bounds for the time to failure of hierarchical systems of fracture

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    For years limited Monte Carlo simulations have led to the suspicion that the time to failure of hierarchically organized load-transfer models of fracture is non-zero for sets of infinite size. This fact could have a profound significance in engineering practice and also in geophysics. Here, we develop an exact algebraic iterative method to compute the successive time intervals for individual breaking in systems of height nn in terms of the information calculated in the previous height n1n-1. As a byproduct of this method, rigorous lower and higher bounds for the time to failure of very large systems are easily obtained. The asymptotic behavior of the resulting lower bound leads to the evidence that the above mentioned suspicion is actually true.Comment: Final version. To appear in Phys. Rev. E, Feb 199
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