42 research outputs found

    Breeding losses of red grouse in Glen Esk (NE Scotland): Comparative studies, 30 years on

    Get PDF
    Hatching success, brood survival and predation rates of red grouse chicks were examined at four sites in north-east Scotland over two years (1994--1995). Two of these sites have previously been the focus of a large-scale population study on grouse during the late 1950s enabling a comparison to be made. A total of 85 hens were radio-tracked and their breeding success monitored over the two years. Compared with studies undertaken in the 1950s, mean clutch size had risen from 7.2 to 8.6 eggs. Of the 76 nests monitored, 17 (22.4%) broods were lost either through egg or chick predation or by the adult being taken by a predator during incubation. Stoats appeared to be responsible for the largest amount of egg predation. There was a significant increase in predation levels, although hatching success was not significantly different from the 1950s. Chick mortality was highest within the first ten days, a similar result to that found in the 1950s. Overall, mean brood survival from hatching to 20 days was 55.1%. Possible reasons for larger clutch sizes, and the apparent increase in predation levels, are discussed

    The role of lambs in louping-ill virus amplification

    Get PDF
    In some areas of Scotland, the prevalence of louping-ill virus has not decreased despite the vaccination of replacement ewes for over 30 years. The role of unvaccinated lambs in viral persistence was examined through a combination of an empirical study of infection rates of lambs and mathematical modelling. Serological sampling revealed that most lambs were protected by colostral immunity at turnout in May/June but were fully susceptible by the end of September. Between 8 and 83% of lambs were infected over the first season, with seroconversion rates greater in late rather than early summer. The proportion of lambs that could have amplified the louping-ill virus was low, however, because high initial titres of colostral antibody on farms with a high force of infection gave protection for several months. A simple mathematical model suggested that the relationship between the force of infection and the percentage of lambs that became viraemic was not linear and that the maximum percentage of viraemic lambs occurred at moderately high infection rates. Examination of the conditions required for louping-ill persistence suggested that the virus could theoretically persist in a sheep flock with over 370 lambs, if the grazing season was longer than 130 days. In practice, however, lamb viraemia is not a general explanation for louping-ill virus persistence as these conditions are not met in most management systems and because the widespread use of acaracides in most tick-affected hill farming systems reduces the number of ticks feeding successfully

    Cluster-randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation in Mumbai slums to improve care during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and for the newborn

    Get PDF
    Background: The United Nations Millennium Development Goals look to substantial improvements in child and maternal survival. Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery and the postnatal period are prime obstacles to achieving these goals. Given the increasing importance of urban health to global prospects, Mumbai's City Initiative for Newborn Health aims to improve maternal and neonatal health in vulnerable urban slum communities, through a combination of health service quality improvement and community participation. The protocol describes a trial of community intervention aimed at improving prevention, care seeking and outcomes.Objective: To test an intervention that supports local women as facilitators in mobilising communities for better health care. Community women's groups will build an understanding of their potential to improve maternal and infant health, and develop and implement strategies to do so.Design: Cluster-randomized controlled trial.Methods: The intervention will employ local community-based female facilitators to convene groups and help them to explore maternal and neonatal health issues. Groups will meet fortnightly through a seven-phase process of sharing experiences, discussion of the issues raised, discovery of potential community strengths, building of a vision for action, design and implementation of community strategies, and evaluation.The unit of allocation will be an urban slum cluster of 1000-1500 households. 48 clusters have been randomly selected after stratification by ward. 24 clusters have been randomly allocated to receive the community intervention. 24 clusters will act as control groups, but will benefit from health service quality improvement. Indicators of effect will be measured through a surveillance system implemented by the project. Key distal outcome indicators will be neonatal mortality and maternal and neonatal morbidity. Key proximate outcome indicators will be home care practices, uptake of antenatal, delivery and postnatal care, and care for maternal and neonatal illness.Data will be collected through a vital registration system for births and deaths in the 48 study clusters. Structured interviews with families will be conducted at about 6 weeks after index deliveries. We will also collect both quantitative and qualitative data to support a process evaluation.Trial registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN9625679

    Progress along developmental tracks for electronic health records implementation in the United States

    Get PDF
    The development and implementation of electronic health records (EHR) have occurred slowly in the United States. To date, these approaches have, for the most part, followed four developmental tracks: (a) Enhancement of immunization registries and linkage with other health records to produce Child Health Profiles (CHP), (b) Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO) demonstration projects to link together patient medical records, (c) Insurance company projects linked to ICD-9 codes and patient records for cost-benefit assessments, and (d) Consortia of EHR developers collaborating to model systems requirements and standards for data linkage. Until recently, these separate efforts have been conducted in the very silos that they had intended to eliminate, and there is still considerable debate concerning health professionals access to as well as commitment to using EHR if these systems are provided. This paper will describe these four developmental tracks, patient rights and the legal environment for EHR, international comparisons, and future projections for EHR expansion across health networks in the United States

    Small and sick newborn care during the COVID-19 pandemic: global survey and thematic analysis of healthcare providers' voices and experiences.

    Get PDF
    INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting health systems globally. Maternity care disruptions have been surveyed, but not those related to vulnerable small newborns. We aimed to survey reported disruptions to small and sick newborn care worldwide and undertake thematic analysis of healthcare providers' experiences and proposed mitigation strategies. METHODS: Using a widely disseminated online survey in three languages, we reached out to neonatal healthcare providers. We collected data on COVID-19 preparedness, effects on health personnel and on newborn care services, including kangaroo mother care (KMC), as well as disruptors and solutions. RESULTS: We analysed 1120 responses from 62 countries, mainly low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Preparedness for COVID-19 was suboptimal in terms of guidelines and availability of personal protective equipment. One-third reported routine testing of all pregnant women, but 13% had no testing capacity at all. More than 85% of health personnel feared for their own health and 89% had increased stress. Newborn care practices were disrupted both due to reduced care-seeking and a compromised workforce. More than half reported that evidence-based interventions such as KMC were discontinued or discouraged. Separation of the mother-baby dyad was reported for both COVID-positive mothers (50%) and those with unknown status (16%). Follow-up care was disrupted primarily due to families' fear of visiting hospitals (~73%). CONCLUSION: Newborn care providers are stressed and there is lack clarity and guidelines regarding care of small newborns during the pandemic. There is an urgent need to protect life-saving interventions, such as KMC, threatened by the pandemic, and to be ready to recover and build back better

    No Evidence for Resistance to Fenbendazole in Trichostrongylus tenuis, a Nematode Parasite of the Red Grouse

    No full text
    The parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis has a detrimental effect on red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) at the individual and population levels. Treatment using grit coated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole hydrochloride reduces parasite infection and increases grouse density. However, a frequent and low dose of anthelmintic increases selection pressure for parasite resistance, a serious practical and economic problem. We used an egg hatch assay to test resistance of T. tenuis from 12 moors in northern England, which differed in grit treatment intensity. The anthelmintic concentration that prevented 50% and 95% of T. tenuis eggs from hatching (ED50 and ED95, respectively) did not differ among moors and were not related to treatment. We suggest annual monitoring and responsible anthelmintic use to prevent resistance so that medicated grit continues to enhance red grouse management

    OMAE2009-79183 EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF WAVE IMPACT FORCES ON RECURVED PARAPETS MOUNTED ABOVE A VERTICAL WALL

    No full text
    ABSTRACT Large-scale hydraulic model tests and detail numerical model investigations were conducted on recurved wave deflecting structures to aid in the design of wave overtopping mitigation for vertical walls in shallow water. The incident wave and storm surge conditions were characteristic return period events for an offshore island on the North Slope of Alaska. During large storm events, despite depth-limited wave heights, a proposed vertical wall extension was susceptible to wave overtopping, which could potentially cause damage to equipment. Numeric calculations were conducted prior to the experimental tests and were used to establish the relative effectiveness of several recurved parapet concepts. The numerical simulations utilized the COrnell BReaking waves and Structures (COBRAS) fluid modeling program, which is a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations [1] [2]. The experimental testing was conducted in the Large Wave Flume (LWF) at Oregon State University, O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. The experimental test directly measured the base shear force, vertical force, and overturning moment applied to the recurved parapets due to wave forcing. Wave impact pressure on the parapet and water particle velocities seaward of the wall were also measured. Results from the experimental testing include probability of exceedance curves for the base shear force, vertical force, and overturning moment for each storm condition. Qualitative comparisons between the experimental tests and the COBRAS simulations show that the numerical model provides realistic flow on and over the parapet

    The Initial Evaluation of Patients After Positive Newborn Screening: Recommended Algorithms Leading to a Confirmed Diagnosis of Pompe Disease

    No full text
    Newborn screening (NBS) for Pompe disease is done through analysis of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) activity in dried blood spots. When GAA levels are below established cutoff values, then second-tier testing is required to confirm or refute a diagnosis of Pompe disease. This article in the Newborn Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Pompe Disease guidance supplement provides recommendations for confirmatory testing after a positive NBS result indicative of Pompe disease is obtained. Two algorithms were developed by the Pompe Disease Newborn Screening Working Group, a group of international experts on both NBS and Pompe disease, based on whether DNA sequencing is performed as part of the screening method. Using the recommendations in either algorithm will lead to 1 of 3 diagnoses: classic infantile-onset Pompe disease, late-onset Pompe disease, or no disease/not affected/carrier. Mutation analysis of the GAA gene is essential for confirming the biochemical diagnosis of Pompe disease. For NBS laboratories that do not have DNA sequencing capabilities, the responsibility of obtaining sequencing of the GAA gene will fall on the referral center. The recommendations for confirmatory testing and the initial evaluation are intended for a broad global audience. However, the Working Group recognizes that clinical practices, standards of care, and resource capabilities vary not only regionally, but also by testing centers. Individual patient needs and health status as well as local/regional insurance reimbursement programs and regulations also must be considered
    corecore