176 research outputs found

    Bounce-Averaged Velocity of Trapped Particle Drift in Toroidal Helical SYstems

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    Abstract The normal to a magnetic surface component of the bounce-averaged velocity of trapped particle drift is investigated. We define this component as vun:6rn/to where 6ro is an excursion of the trapped particle across the magnetic surface during one bounce time zo. A method of computing r"o is considered in case of a stellarator magnetic field given in real-space coordinates, without transforming the field to magnetic coordinates. We also consider an evaluation of neoclassical transport for the L/ v transport regime

    Can ionic concentration changes due to mechanical deformation be responsible for the neurostimulation caused by focused ultrasound? a simulation study

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    Objective Ultrasound stimulation is an emerging neuromodulation technique, for which the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. Despite the number of hypotheses such as mechanosensitive ion channels and intermembrane cavitation, they fail to explain all of the observed experimental effects. Here we are investigating the ionic concentration change as a prime mechanism for the neurostimulation by the ultrasound. Approach We derive the direct analytical relationship between the mechanical deformations in the tissue and the electric boundary conditions for the cable theory equations and solve them for two types of neuronal axon models: Hodgkin-Huxley and C-fibre. We detect the activation thresholds for a variety of ultrasound stimulation cases including continuous and pulsed ultrasound and estimate the mechanical deformations required for reaching the thresholds and generating action potentials. Main results We note that the proposed mechanism strongly depends on the mechanical properties of the neural tissues, which at the moment cannot be located in literature with the required certainty. We conclude that given certain common linear assumptions, this mechanism alone cannot cause significant effects and be responsible for neurostimulation. However, we also conclude that if the lower estimation of mechanical properties of neural tissues in literature is true, or if the normal cavitation occurs during the ultrasound stimulation, the proposed mechanism can be a prime cause for the generation of action potentials. Significance The approach allows prediction and modelling of most observed experimental effects, including the probabilistic ones, without the need for any extra physical effects or additional parameters

    Sandyites and rocks of monzonite composition of the Ilmenogorsk miaskit massive (the Southern Urals)

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    The results of study of rocks of the Ilmenogorsk miaskite block - mylonitized miaskites, “sandyites” and monzonitic rocks, which were found for the first time, are presented in the paper. We studied textural-structural features of rock and their mineral and chemical composition. The composition of petrogenic elements in rocks were determined by atomic absobtion method, rare earth, rare and trace elements - ICP-MS method. Microprobe analyses compositions of minerals were made on the scanning electron microscope REMMА-202 M with energy-dispersive console Link systems LZ with Si-Li detector. Correlation of data was performed using the program “Magellanes”. These data allowed us to establish the degree of transformation of rocks and multistage metasomatic processes. The mineral assemblages indicate amphibolite facies of metamorphism, which was accompanied by participation of the F-bearing fluid and formation of specific accessory minerals - highly aluminous titanite and allanite. The highly variable Al contents of these minerals is evidence of high alkalinity at the presence of the fluorine in the fluid. The minerals of the banalsite-stronalsite group in sandyites points to a wide range of temperatures during metasomatic processes. Alteration of rocks results of the change of their chemical composition: the ТiO2, MgО, СаО, total Fe, and LREE contents increased and SiO2, Al2O3, and К2O contents decreased. The rocks are characterized by high REE contents in contrast to the host mylonitized miaskites and the high contents of lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, Sr, Th) and low contents of Co, Cu, W, Ni, Cr, and Pb. Our data indicate the metasomatic origin of the studied rocks. The increase in the contents of trace and rare earth elements from milonitized miaskites to sandyites and monzonitic rocks reflect their mobility and significant role of assimilation of the continental crust. The mobility of these elements and their redistribution in the rocks increase during active influence of fluid and growth in it the contents of alkalis and fluorine. Thus, sandyites of the Ilmenogorsky miaskite block are metasomatic rocks which produced after mylonitized miaskites in the linear tectonic zones during late postcollisional shear stage. The monzonitic rocks are ortho-rocks and were probably formed after country diorites. They kept relics of primary structures, but were transformed simultaneously with sandyites under influence of multistage tectonic-metamorphic processes