1,409 research outputs found

    Ending marriage, keeping faith: a new guide through the spiritual journey of divorce

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    Reviewed Book: Nichols, J Randall. Ending marriage, keeping faith: a new guide through the spiritual journey of divorce. New York: Crossroad, 1993

    Establishment and persistence of legumes on sites varying in aspect, landscape position and soil type

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    Most Iowa pastures display only a small variety of plant species, resulting in large seasonal and annual variations in pasture productivity. This project evaluated the causes for these variations in cool-season grass pastures and considered ways to improve diversity of legume species used for grazing

    qtl.outbred: Interfacing outbred line cross data with the R/qtl mapping software

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><b>qtl.outbred </b>is an extendible interface in the statistical environment, R, for combining quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping tools. It is built as an umbrella package that enables outbred genotype probabilities to be calculated and/or imported into the software package R/<b>qtl</b>.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>Using <b>qtl.outbred</b>, the genotype probabilities from outbred line cross data can be calculated by interfacing with a new and efficient algorithm developed for analyzing arbitrarily large datasets (included in the package) or imported from other sources such as the web-based tool, GridQTL.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p><b>qtl.outbred </b>will improve the speed for calculating probabilities and the ability to analyse large future datasets. This package enables the user to analyse outbred line cross data accurately, but with similar effort than inbred line cross data.</p

    The Lack of an Inherent Membrane Targeting Signal Is Responsible for the Failure of the Matrix (M1) Protein of Influenza A Virus To Bud into Virus-Like Particles

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    The matrix protein (M1) of influenza A virus is generally viewed as a key orchestrator in the release of influenza virions from the plasma membrane during infection. In contrast to this model, recent studies have indicated that influenza virus requires expression of the envelope proteins for budding of intracellular M1 into virus particles. Here we explored the mechanisms that control M1 budding. Similarly to previous studies, we found that M1 by itself fails to form virus-like-particles (VLPs). We further demonstrated that M1, in the absence of other viral proteins, was preferentially targeted to the nucleus/perinuclear region rather than to the plasma membrane, where influenza virions bud. Remarkably, we showed that a 10-residue membrane targeting peptide from either the Fyn or Lck oncoprotein appended to M1 at the N terminus redirected M1 to the plasma membrane and allowed M1 particle budding without additional viral envelope proteins. To further identify a functional link between plasma membrane targeting and VLP formation, we took advantage of the fact that M1 can interact with M2, unless the cytoplasmic tail is absent. Notably, native M2 but not mutant M2 effectively targeted M1 to the plasma membrane and produced extracellular M1 VLPs. Our results suggest that influenza virus M1 may not possess an inherent membrane targeting signal. Thus, the lack of efficient plasma membrane targeting is responsible for the failure of M1 in budding. This study highlights the fact that interactions of M1 with viral envelope proteins are essential to direct M1 to the plasma membrane for influenza virus particle release

    Permanent pacing is a risk factor for the development of heart failure.

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    No previous study has examined the importance of right ventricular pacing as a risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF) in subjects without a history of HF. A cohort study of patients who underwent initial pacemaker implantation (n = 11,426) was conducted to test the hypothesis that patients with ventricular dyssynchrony created by permanent pacing would develop HF, as shown by new HF hospitalizations or HF-related deaths, at a higher rate than matched controls

    Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

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    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change
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