5,745 research outputs found

    Pakistan in 2008: Moving Beyond Musharraf

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    Following the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in December 2007 and national elections in February 2008, Pakistan struggled to distance itself from the discredited military regime of President (General) Pervez Musharraf. Competition between the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), once led by Benazir Bhutto and subsequently by her widower Asif Ali Zardari, and the Pakistan Muslim League (PML-N) led by Nawaz Sharif, however, threatened to thwart the cause of political stability in Pakistan

    Muslims, Markets, and the Meaning of 'A Good Education' in Pakistan

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    Pakistan in 2009: Tackling the Taliban?

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    Party-based political competition played an important part in shaping key events in Pakistan in 2009. This article examines the impact of party-based competition on the much-delayed restoration of Supreme Court Chief Justice Mohammad Iftikhar Chaudhry, efforts to address (with U.S. assistance) Pakistan’s growing Taliban-affiliated insurgency, and both federal and provincial economic policies. This article concludes that party-based competition will continue to shape Pakistan’s evolving security and economic situation in 2010

    Understanding Extended Projected Profile (EPP) Trajectory Error Using a Medium-Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

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    A critical component of Trajectory-Based Operations is the ability for a consistent and accurate 4-dimensional trajectory to be shared and synchronized between airborne and ground systems as well as amongst various ground automation systems. The Aeronautical Telecommunication NetworkBaseline 2 standard defines the Extended Projected Profile (EPP) trajectory that can be sent via Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract from an aircraft to ground automation. The EPP trajectory message contains a representation of the reference trajectory from an aircrafts Flight Management System (FMS). In this work, a set of scenarios were run in a medium-fidelity aircraft and FMS simulation to perform an initial characterization of EPP trajectory errors under a given set of conditions. The parameters investigated were the route length, route type, wind magnitude error, wind direction error, and with and without a required time-of-arrival constraint

    A Relative Position Code for Saccades in Dorsal Premotor Cortex

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    Spatial computations underlying the coordination of the hand and eye present formidable geometric challenges. One way for the nervous system to simplify these computations is to directly encode the relative position of the hand and the center of gaze. Neurons in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), which is critical for the guidance of arm-reaching movements, encode the relative position of the hand, gaze, and goal of reaching movements. This suggests that PMd can coordinate reaching movements with eye movements. Here, we examine saccade-related signals in PMd to determine whether they also point to a role for PMd in coordinating visual–motor behavior. We first compared the activity of a population of PMd neurons with a population of parietal reach region (PRR) neurons. During center-out reaching and saccade tasks, PMd neurons responded more strongly before saccades than PRR neurons, and PMd contained a larger proportion of exclusively saccade-tuned cells than PRR. During a saccade relative position-coding task, PMd neurons encoded saccade targets in a relative position code that depended on the relative position of gaze, the hand, and the goal of a saccadic eye movement. This relative position code for saccades is similar to the way that PMd neurons encode reach targets. We propose that eye movement and eye position signals in PMd do not drive eye movements, but rather provide spatial information that links the control of eye and arm movements to support coordinated visual–motor behavior

    Augmented Biracks and their Homology

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    We introduce augmented biracks and define a (co)homology theory associated to augmented biracks. The new homology theory extends the previously studied Yang-Baxter homology with a combinatorial formulation for the boundary map and specializes to NN-reduced rack homology when the birack is a rack. We introduce augmented birack 2-cocycle invariants of classical and virtual knots and links and provide examples.Comment: 16 page


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