66 research outputs found

    Advancing Equity in the Farm Bill: Opportunities for the Gus Schumacher Nutrition Incentive Program (GusNIP)

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    The Gus Schumacher Nutrition Incentive Program (GusNIP) is a federally funded grant program that provides nutrition incentives—subsidies for purchasing fruits and vegetables (FV)—to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. GusNIP currently advances nutrition equity by improving FV access for people with low incomes, yet inequities exist within GusNIP. We sought to identify inequities in GusNIP at the community, organization, partner, and individual levels and develop recommendations for farm bill provisions to make the program more equitable. In Spring 2021, a group of nutrition incentive experts (n = 11) from across the country convened to discuss opportunities to enhance equity in GusNIP. The iterative recommendation development process included feedback from key stakeholders (n = 15) and focus group participants with GusNIP lived experience (n = 12). Eleven recommendations to advance equity in GusNIP in the farm bill emerged across six categories: (1) increase total GusNIP funding, (2) increase funding and support to lower-resourced organizations and impacted communities, (3) eliminate the match requirement, (4) support statewide expansion, (5) expand and diversify retailer participation, and (6) expand program marketing. Including these recommendations in the upcoming and future farm bills would equitably expand GusNIP for SNAP participants, program grantees, and communities across the country

    Can cephalopods Vomit? Hypothesis based on a review of circumstantial evidence and preliminary experiemntal observations

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    In representative species of all vertebrate classes, the oral ejection of upper digestive tract contents by vomiting or regurgitation is used to void food contaminated with toxins or containing indigestible material not voidable in the feces. Vomiting or regurgitation has been reported in a number of invertebrate marine species (Exaiptasia diaphana, Cancer productus, and Pleurobranchaea californica), prompting consideration of whether cephalopods have this capability. This “hypothesis and theory” paper reviews four lines of supporting evidence: (1) the mollusk P. californica sharing some digestive tract morphological and innervation similarities with Octopus vulgaris is able to vomit or regurgitate with the mechanisms well characterized, providing an example of motor program switching; (2) a rationale for vomiting or regurgitation in cephalopods based upon the potential requirement to void indigestible material, which may cause damage and ejection of toxin contaminated food; (3) anecdotal reports (including from the literature) of vomiting- or regurgitation-like behavior in several species of cephalopod (Sepia officinalis, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, O. vulgaris, and Enteroctopus dofleini); and (4) anatomical and physiological studies indicating that ejection of gastric/crop contents via the buccal cavity is a theoretical possibility by retroperistalsis in the upper digestive tract (esophagus, crop, and stomach). We have not identified any publications refuting our hypothesis, so a balanced review is not possible. Overall, the evidence presented is circumstantial, so experiments adapting current methodology (e.g., research community survey, in vitro studies of motility, and analysis of indigestible gut contents and feces) are described to obtain additional evidence to either support or refute our hypothesis. We recognize the possibility that further research may not support the hypothesis; therefore, we consider how cephalopods may protect themselves against ingestion of toxic food by external chemodetection prior to ingestion and digestive gland detoxification post-ingestion. Reviewing the evidence for the hypothesis has identified a number of gaps in knowledge of the anatomy (e.g., the presence of sphincters) and physiology (e.g., the fate of indigestible food residues, pH of digestive secretions, sensory innervation, and digestive gland detoxification mechanisms) of the digestive tract as well as a paucity of recent studies on the role of epithelial chemoreceptors in prey identification and food intakeVersión del edito

    Chromatin dynamics at DNA breaks: what, how and why?

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