3 research outputs found

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence in ophthalmology: safety and improved imaging for functional diagnostics

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    Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) is emerging as a powerful imaging technique with superior penetration power in scattering media, allowing for functional imaging of biological tissues at a subcellular level. TPEF is commonly used in cancer diagnostics, as it enables the direct observation of metabolism within living cells. The technique is now widely used in various medical fields, including ophthalmology. The eye is a complex and delicate organ with multiple layers of different cell types and tissues. Although this structure is ideal for visual perception, it generates aberrations in TPEF eye imaging. However, adaptive optics can now compensate for these aberrations, allowing for improved imaging of the eyes of animal models for human diseases. The eye is naturally built to filter out harmful wavelengths, but these wavelengths can be mimicked and thereby utilized in diagnostics via two-photon (2Ph) excitation. Recent advances in laser-source manufacturing have made it possible to minimize the exposure of in vivo measurements within safety, while achieving sufficient signals to detect for functional images, making TPEF a viable option for human application. This review explores recent advances in wavefront-distortion correction in animal models and the safety of use of TPEF on human subjects, both of which make TPEF a potentially powerful tool for ophthalmological diagnostics

    COVID‐19 retreats and world recovers: A silver lining in the dark cloud

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    Abstract The coronavirus disease (COVID‐19), which the World Health Organization classified as the Sixth Public Health Emergency Of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020, is no longer a PHEIC. Millions were affected due to unawareness. The increase in fatalities and shortage of medicine was the first outrage of COVID‐19. As per the Johns Hopkins COVID‐19 resource center database, it was observed that the disease has spread dynamically across 200+ nations worldwide affecting more than 600 million people from 2019 to 2023, and over thousands of people were victimized regularly at a 2% mortality rate (approx.). In the midway, the mutant variants of concern like omicron, and delta have also created havoc and caused significant impact on public health, global economy, and lifestyle. Since 2019, 3 years now passed and the dynamic disease statistics seem decelerated; moreover, the prevalence of COVID‐19 is also fading. The Johns Hopkins resource center has also stopped recording the data of the global pandemic recently from March 10, 2023. Hence, based on the facts, we are presenting a concise report on the pandemic from 2019 to 2023, which includes a brief discussion of the global pandemic. We have highlighted global epidemiology, emphasizing the Indian COVID scenario, vaccination across the globe, and the psychosocial and geopolitical consequences of COVID‐19 with a brief background to pathology, clinical management, and the worldwide response against triage. A lot has changed and still needs to change after three tough years of COVID‐19. Even though science has progressed and advanced research in medicine is pointing toward future generations, there is no standard care supplied for COVID‐19‐like calamities. COVID‐19 cases might have declined but its influence on the society is still stagnant. This COVID experience has taught us that, despite our bleak beginnings, there is always hope for the future and that we must act with foresight to improve things for future generations