1,451 research outputs found

    Adaptive Sampling for Low Latency Vision Processing

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    EXPLAINING THE ADOPTION AND DISADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF COVER CROPS IN NORTHERN HONDURAS

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    Although technology adoption has been the subject of a great deal of economic research, that focused on the economics of adoption of low-input "sustainable" systems has been much more limited and recent. This paper attempts to explain the recent decline in the use of cover crops using in maize farming in the Department of Atlantida, Honduras. In the early 1970's, farmers in the region began rotating maize with the velvetbean (mucuna ssp.), a system learned from Guatemalan immigrants. Tohe mucuna-maize system decreased the labor required for maize farming even as it increased yields, prevented erosion, and conferred a variety of other agronomic benefits. By 1992, estimates show that the system had diffused among more than 60% of farmers in the Department. Both due to this widespread dissemination, and the fact that diffusion was largely spontaneous (unassisted by extensions and NGOs), the maize-mucuna system has become a widely acknowledged "success story" of sustainable agriculture diffusion. However, recent anecdotal evidence, confirmed by the survey research reported here, shows that by the late 1990s, use of the system had begun to decline sharply. Various hypotheses about the cause of this decline were investigated in this research, including whether the abandonment of the mucuna-maize system is attributable to a generalized decline in maize cultivation, changes in land tenure and distribution, a burgeoning cattle industry, infrastructural improvements, widespread infestations of noxious weed (rottboellia cochinchinensis), or limitations in farmer management. Modeling techniques evaluated two land-use decisions: whether to adopt mucuna-maize and the contingent decision of whether to abandon the system, once adopted. Bivariate probit analysis is used in the econometric analysis. Descriptive statistics and econometric results indicate that age, level of income from non-maize sources, the presence of rottboellia, and access to a road or highway are significantly related to the abandonment of overcropping. Meanwhile, greater dedication to maize, diversification into high value crops, greater experience with the system, and annual reseeding of mucuna are associated with continued use of the mucuna-maize rotation. The empirical results overall demonstrate that the phenomenon of maize-muchuna adoption and abandonment is a highly complex process. The results have policy implications for the "farmer to farmer" model of extension as well as the promotion of mucuna-maize as a sustainable agriculture technique. In the first case, less emphasis on diffusion and greater attention to farmer-to-farmer teaching of crop system dynamics may be important for the durability of cover crop systems. Regarding the second, cover crop species like mucuna should not be viewed as "silver bullet" solution to sustaining low-input agriculture: indeed, exclusive rotation of mucuna with maize may eliminate critical sources of plant and animal species diversity, ultimately undermining the system itself.International development, Sustainable agriculture, Adoption, Disadoption, Farmer management, Crop Production/Industries,

    A New Brown Dwarf Desert? A Scarcity of Wide Ultracool Binaries

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    We present the results of a deep-imaging search for wide companions to low-mass stars and brown dwarfs using NSFCam on IRTF. We searched a sample of 132 M7-L8 dwarfs to magnitude limits of J20.5J \sim 20.5 and K18.5K \sim 18.5, corresponding to secondary-primary mass ratios of 0.5\sim 0.5. No companions were found with separations between 2{\arcsec} to 31{\arcsec} (\sim40 AU to \sim1000 AU). This null result implies a wide companion frequency below 2.3% at the 95% confidence level within the sensitivity limits of the survey. Preliminary modeling efforts indicate that we could have detected 85% of companions more massive than 0.05M0.05 M_{\odot} and 50% above 0.03M0.03 M_{\odot}.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables: accepted to the Astronomical Journa

    Resonant Shattering Flares as Multimessenger Probes of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy

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    The behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy near saturation density is important for our understanding of dense nuclear matter. This density dependence can be parameterised by the nuclear symmetry energy and its derivatives evaluated at nuclear saturation density. In this work we show that the core-crust interface mode of a neutron star is sensitive to these parameters, through the (density-weighted) shear-speed within the crust, which is in turn dependent on the symmetry energy profile of dense matter. We calculate the frequency at which the neutron star quadrupole (=2\ell = 2) crust-core interface mode must be driven by the tidal field of its binary partner to trigger a Resonant Shattering Flare (RSF). We demonstrate that coincident multimessenger timing of an RSF and gravitational wave chirp from a neutron star merger would enable us to place constraints on the symmetry energy parameters that are competitive with those from current nuclear experiments.Comment: 15 pages, 19 figures, accepted in MNRA

    Normalization of electroretinograph

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    Normalization of electroretinograp

    Exploring the Designer-Constructor Teamwork Interface to improve Collaboration: A review of current literature

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    The construction industry has been criticised over several decades for functioning and producing output with low levels of productivity when compared to other manufacturing-based industries. One possible solution to improve productivity is the adoption of collaborative working practices by project teams, particularly designers and constructors during the design phase. Arguments in support of the need to manage the design process effectively during a construction project are well documented. Issues such as providing the client with a sustainable, affordable, quality design that adds value to their business needs, requires attention. Managing the interpersonal interface between designers and constructors during the design phase is a vital requirement of design management practice. Design management is a discipline that requires a thorough understanding of the nature and culture of the different professionals to improve the social behaviours and performance of teams, which in turn may improve project outcomes and thus industrial productivity. The current study, which is part of an ongoing project, presents the position of the design management literature focused on the interpersonal behaviour between designers and constructors. Following a strategically focused review of the extant literature, current themes relevant to Teamwork Quality (TWQ), specific to the designer-constructor interface, are presented. The findings confirm the presence of 14 articles that explore collaborative teamwork behaviour between designers and constructors and that survey methods dominate publications in this area. Few studies capture the power of space and place by observing ‘live' industry practice, particularly from a longitudinal perspective. Recommendations include the identification of research themes worthy of future exploration that may assist in teamwork performance concerning productivity. An increase in the use of alternative methodological approaches such as ethnographic and action research is also justified and discussed

    Responses of soil carbon, nitrogen and cations to the frequency and seasonality of prescribed burning in a Cape Cod oak-pine forest

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    Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Forest Ecology and Management 250 (2007): 234-243, doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2007.05.023.Fire is an important component of the historic disturbance regime of oak and pine forests that occupy sandy soils of the coastal outwash plain of the northeastern U.S. Today prescribed fire is used for fuel reduction and for restoration and maintenance of habitat for rare plant, animal and insect species. We evaluated the effects of the frequency and seasonality of prescribed burning on the soils of a Cape Cod, Massachusetts coastal oak-pine forest. We compared soil bulk density, pH and acidity, total extractable cations and total soil C and N in unburned plots and in plots burned over a 12-year period, along a gradient of frequency (every 1-to-4 years), in either spring (March/April) or summer (July/August). Summer burning decreased soil organic horizon thickness more than spring burning, but only summer burning every 1 to 2 years reduced organic horizons compared with controls. Burning increased soil bulk density of the organic horizon only in the annual summer burns and did not affect bulk density of mineral soil. Burn frequency had no effect on pH in organic soil, but burning every year in summer increased pH of organic soil from 4.01 to 4.95 and of mineral soil from 4.20 to 4.79. Burning had no significant effect on organic or mineral soil percent C, percent N, C:N, soil exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ or total soil C or N. Overall effects of burning on soil chemistry were minor. Our results suggest that annual summer burns may be required to reduce soil organic matter thickness to produce conditions that would regularly allow seed germination for oak and for grassland species that are conservation targets. Managers may have to look to other measures, such as combinations of fire with mechanical treatments (e.g., soil scarification) to further promote grasses and forbs in forests where establishment of these plants is a high priority.Funding was provided by the National Park Service, The Nature Conservancy via a grant from the Mellon Foundation, the Joint Fire Science Program, and a grant from the Mellon Foundation to MBL

    Towards automating visual in-field monitoring of crop health

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    Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine

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    An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen
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