51 research outputs found

    Functional Characterization of p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 Variant Accidentally Found in a Hypercholesterolemic Subject

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    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant dyslipidaemia, characterised by elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the blood. Three main genes are involved in FH diagnosis: LDL receptor (LDLr), Apolipoprotein B (APOB) and Protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) with genetic mutations that led to reduced plasma LDL-C clearance. To date, several PCSK9 gain-of-function (GOF) variants causing FH have been described based on their increased ability to degrade LDLr. On the other hand, mutations that reduce the activity of PCSK9 on LDLr degradation have been described as loss-of-function (LOF) variants. It is therefore important to functionally characterise PCSK9 variants in order to support the genetic diagnosis of FH. The aim of this work is to functionally characterise the p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 variant found in a subject suspected to have FH. Different techniques have been combined to determine efficiency of the autocatalytic cleavage, protein expression, effect of the variant on LDLr activity and affinity of the PCSK9 variant for the LDLr. Expression and processing of the p.(Arg160Gln) variant had a result similar to that of WT PCSK9. The effect of p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 on LDLr activity is lower than WT PCSK9, with higher values of LDL internalisation (13%) and p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 affinity for the LDLr is lower than WT, EC50 8.6 ¬Ī 0.8 and 25.9 ¬Ī 0.7, respectively. The p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 variant is a LOF PCSK9 whose loss of activity is caused by a displacement of the PCSK9 P‚Äô helix, which reduces the stability of the LDLr-PCSK9 complex.This research was funded by Grupos Consolidados Gobierno Vasco 2021, grant number IT1720-22. A.L.-S. was supported by a grant PIF (2019‚Äď2020), Gobierno Vasco and partially supported by Fundaci√≥n Biof√≠sica Bizkaia. S.J-B. was supported by a Margarita Salas Grant 2022 from the University of the Basque Country

    Retrospective exploratory analysis of VEGF polymorphisms in the prediction of benefit from first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Molecular predictors of bevacizumab efficacy in colorectal cancer have not been identified yet. Specific <it>VEGF </it>polymorphisms may affect gene transcription and therefore indirectly influence the efficacy of bevacizumab.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Genomic DNA of 111 consecutive metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab was obtained from blood samples. <it>VEGF </it>-2578 C/A, -1498 C/T, + 405 C/G, + 936 C/T polymorphisms were analyzed by means of PCR-RFLP. DNA samples from 107 patients treated with FOLFIRI alone served as historical control group. The relation of <it>VEGF </it>polymorphisms with PFS, evaluated through Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, was the primary end-point. An interaction test with a Cox model has been performed in order to demonstrate the heterogeneity of the effect of <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T polymorphism between bevacizumab-and control group.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In the bevacizumab-group median PFS and OS of patients carrying <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/C, C/T and T/T allelic variants were, respectively, 12.8, 10.5, 7.5 months (p = 0.0046, log-rank test) and 27.3, 20.5, 18.6 months (p = 0.038, log-rank test). <it>VEGF </it>-1498 T/T genotype was associated with shorter PFS (HR = 2.13, [1.41-5.10], p = 0.0027). In the control group no significant association of <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T allelic variants and PFS or OS was found. Interaction between <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T variants and treatment effect suggested that the relation of <it>VEGF </it>-1498 T/T genotype with shorter PFS was caused by the effect of bevacizumab (p = 0.011). Other investigated polymorphisms did not affect the outcome.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These data suggest a possible role for <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T variants in predicting the efficacy of bevacizumab in the up-front treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. A molecular tool for selecting subjects candidate to benefit from the anti-VEGF could be important for clinical practice. The retrospective and exploratory design of the present study, coupled with the non-randomized nature of the comparison between treated and untreated patients, imply that these results should be considered as hypothesis generators. A prospective validating trial is currently ongoing.</p

    Retrospective exploratory analysis of VEGF polymorphisms in the prediction of benefit from first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Molecular predictors of bevacizumab efficacy in colorectal cancer have not been identified yet. Specific <it>VEGF </it>polymorphisms may affect gene transcription and therefore indirectly influence the efficacy of bevacizumab.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Genomic DNA of 111 consecutive metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab was obtained from blood samples. <it>VEGF </it>-2578 C/A, -1498 C/T, + 405 C/G, + 936 C/T polymorphisms were analyzed by means of PCR-RFLP. DNA samples from 107 patients treated with FOLFIRI alone served as historical control group. The relation of <it>VEGF </it>polymorphisms with PFS, evaluated through Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, was the primary end-point. An interaction test with a Cox model has been performed in order to demonstrate the heterogeneity of the effect of <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T polymorphism between bevacizumab-and control group.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In the bevacizumab-group median PFS and OS of patients carrying <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/C, C/T and T/T allelic variants were, respectively, 12.8, 10.5, 7.5 months (p = 0.0046, log-rank test) and 27.3, 20.5, 18.6 months (p = 0.038, log-rank test). <it>VEGF </it>-1498 T/T genotype was associated with shorter PFS (HR = 2.13, [1.41-5.10], p = 0.0027). In the control group no significant association of <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T allelic variants and PFS or OS was found. Interaction between <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T variants and treatment effect suggested that the relation of <it>VEGF </it>-1498 T/T genotype with shorter PFS was caused by the effect of bevacizumab (p = 0.011). Other investigated polymorphisms did not affect the outcome.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These data suggest a possible role for <it>VEGF </it>-1498 C/T variants in predicting the efficacy of bevacizumab in the up-front treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. A molecular tool for selecting subjects candidate to benefit from the anti-VEGF could be important for clinical practice. The retrospective and exploratory design of the present study, coupled with the non-randomized nature of the comparison between treated and untreated patients, imply that these results should be considered as hypothesis generators. A prospective validating trial is currently ongoing.</p

    Spectrum of mutations in Italian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: New results from the LIPIGEN study

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    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol that confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Early identification and treatment of FH patients can improve prognosis and reduce the burden of cardiovascular mortality. Aim of this study was to perform the mutational analysis of FH patients identified through a collaboration of 20 Lipid Clinics in Italy (LIPIGEN Study). Methods We recruited 1592 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of definite or probable FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. We performed a parallel sequencing of the major candidate genes for monogenic hypercholesterolemia (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, APOE, LDLRAP1, STAP1). Results A total of 213 variants were detected in 1076 subjects. About 90% of them had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. More than 94% of patients carried pathogenic variants in LDLR gene, 27 of which were novel. Pathogenic variants in APOB and PCSK9 were exceedingly rare. We found 4 true homozygotes and 5 putative compound heterozygotes for pathogenic variants in LDLR gene, as well as 5 double heterozygotes for LDLR/APOB pathogenic variants. Two patients were homozygous for pathogenic variants in LDLRAP1 gene resulting in autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia. One patient was found to be heterozygous for the ApoE variant p.(Leu167del), known to confer an FH phenotype. Conclusions This study shows the molecular characteristics of the FH patients identified in Italy over the last two years. Full phenotypic characterization of these patients and cascade screening of family members is now in progress

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74¬∑0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24¬∑8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26¬∑1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23¬∑8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51¬∑2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38¬∑0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81¬∑7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1¬∑75 [95% CI 1¬∑28‚Äď2¬∑40], p\textless0¬∑0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2¬∑30 [1¬∑65‚Äď3¬∑22], p\textless0¬∑0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3‚Äď5 versus grades 1‚Äď2 (2¬∑35 [1¬∑57‚Äď3¬∑53], p\textless0¬∑0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1¬∑55 [1¬∑01‚Äď2¬∑39], p=0¬∑046), emergency versus elective surgery (1¬∑67 [1¬∑06‚Äď2¬∑63], p=0¬∑026), and major versus minor surgery (1¬∑52 [1¬∑01‚Äď2¬∑31], p=0¬∑047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research

    Familial hypercholesterolemia: The Italian Atherosclerosis Society Network (LIPIGEN)

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary dyslipidemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal levels of circulating lipoproteins. Among them, familial hypercholesterolemia is the most common lipid disorder that predisposes for premature cardiovascular disease. We set up an Italian nationwide network aimed at facilitating the clinical and genetic diagnosis of genetic dyslipidemias named LIPIGEN (LIpid TransPort Disorders Italian GEnetic Network). METHODS: Observational, multicenter, retrospective and prospective study involving about 40 Italian clinical centers. Genetic testing of the appropriate candidate genes at one of six molecular diagnostic laboratories serving as nationwide DNA diagnostic centers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: From 2012 to October 2016, available biochemical and clinical information of 3480 subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia identified according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) score were included in the database and genetic analysis was performed in 97.8% of subjects, with a mutation detection rate of 92.0% in patients with DLCN score 656. The establishment of the LIPIGEN network will have important effects on clinical management and it will improve the overall identification and treatment of primary dyslipidemias in Italy

    Measurement of the bb‚Äĺb\overline{b} dijet cross section in pp collisions at s=7\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector