871 research outputs found

    Detecting Multiple Communities Using Quantum Annealing on the D-Wave System

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    A very important problem in combinatorial optimization is partitioning a network into communities of densely connected nodes; where the connectivity between nodes inside a particular community is large compared to the connectivity between nodes belonging to different ones. This problem is known as community detection, and has become very important in various fields of science including chemistry, biology and social sciences. The problem of community detection is a twofold problem that consists of determining the number of communities and, at the same time, finding those communities. This drastically increases the solution space for heuristics to work on, compared to traditional graph partitioning problems. In many of the scientific domains in which graphs are used, there is the need to have the ability to partition a graph into communities with the ``highest quality'' possible since the presence of even small isolated communities can become crucial to explain a particular phenomenon. We have explored community detection using the power of quantum annealers, and in particular the D-Wave 2X and 2000Q machines. It turns out that the problem of detecting at most two communities naturally fits into the architecture of a quantum annealer with almost no need of reformulation. This paper addresses a systematic study of detecting two or more communities in a network using a quantum annealer

    Shadow Energy Functionals and Potentials in Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

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    In Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations based on density functional theory (DFT), the potential energy and the interatomic forces are calculated from an electronic ground state density that is determined by an iterative self-consistent field optimization procedure, which in practice never is fully converged. The calculated energies and the forces are therefore only approximate, which may lead to an unphysical energy drift and instabilities. Here we discuss an alternative shadow BOMD approach that is based on a backward error analysis. Instead of calculating approximate solutions for an underlying exact regular BO potential, we do the opposite. Instead, we calculate the exact electron density, energies, and forces, but for an underlying approximate shadow BO potential. In this way the calculated forces are conservative with respect to the shadow potential and generate accurate molecular trajectories with long-term energy stability. We show how such shadow BO potentials can be constructed at different levels of accuracy as a function of the integration time step, dt, from the minimization of a sequence of systematically improvable, but approximate, shadow energy density functionals. For each functional there is a corresponding ground state BO potential. These pairs of shadow energy functionals and potentials are higher-level generalizations of the original "0th-level" shadow energy functionals and potentials used in extended Lagrangian BOMD [Eur. Phys. J. B vol. 94, 164 (2021)]. The proposed shadow energy functionals and potentials are useful only within this dynamical framework, where also the electronic degrees of freedom are propagated together with the atomic positions and velocities. The theory is general and can be applied to MD simulations using approximate DFT, Hartree-Fock or semi-empirical methods, as well as to coarse-grained flexible charge models.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figure

    The use of the SeDeM diagram expert system for the formulation of Captopril SR matrix tablets by direct compression

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    The SeDeM Diagram Expert System has been used to study excipients, Captopril and designed formulations for their galenic characterization and to ascertain the critical points of the formula affecting product quality to obtain suitable formulations of Captopril Direct Compression SR Matrix Tablets. The application of the Sedem Diagram Expert System enables selecting excipients with in order to optimize the formula in the preformulation and formulation studies. The methodology is based on the implementation of ICH Q8, establishing the design space of the formula with the use of experiment design, using the parameters of the SeDeM Diagram Expert System as system responses
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