14 research outputs found

    Potential role of gut microbiota in induction and regulation of innate immune memory

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    The gut microbiota significantly regulates the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune system. The attribute of immunological memory has long been linked only with adaptive immunity. Recent evidence indicates that memory is also present in the innate immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells. These cells exhibit pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs) expressed by the microbes. Interaction between PRRs and MAMPs is quite crucial since it triggers the sequence of signaling events and epigenetic rewiring that not only play a cardinal role in modulating the activation and function of the innate cells but also impart a sense of memory response. We discuss here how gut microbiota can influence the generation of innate memory and functional reprogramming of bone marrow progenitors that helps in protection against infections. This article will broaden our current perspective of association between the gut microbiome and innate memory. In the future, this knowledge may pave avenues for development and designing of novel immunotherapies and vaccination strategies

    Editorial: Gut microbiota as a weapon against infections

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    Isolation, screening and characterization of bacteria from Rhizospheric soils for different plant growth promotion (PGP) activities: an in vitro study

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    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, in association with roots which can enhance the growth of plant directly or indirectly. A large number of bacteria including species of Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Burkholderia, Bacillus, Rhizobium and Serratia have reported to enhance plant growth. In the present study, six French bean rhizospheric soil samples were collected from different location of Shimla and Solan in H.P (India). A total of thirty bacteria were isolated and in vitro screening was done for different plant growth promotion activities i.e. phosphate solublization, IAA production, ammonia production, ACC deaminase activity, HCN production and catalase. In the present work twelve bacterial isolates were positive for phosphate solublization. IAA production was shown by almost all the bacterial isolates. Three isolates were positive for ammonia production. ACC deaminase activity was shown by nine isolates. Two isolates were positive for HCN production and all the isolates were found to be catalase positive. Seven isolates were showing maximum plant growth promotion activities and further identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram staining and biochemical tests. These isolates were identified as Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Pseudomonas sp. As PGPR are environmental friendly and offer sustainable approach to increase production of crops and health. Therefore, these isolates can be utilized for biofertilizer formulation under local agro-climatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh

    Infergen stimulated macrophages restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by autophagy and release of nitric oxide

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    IFN alfacon-1 (Infergen) is a synthetic form of Interferon (IFN)-α2b. Infergen has immunomodulatory activity and is effective against hepatitis C virus. However, the effect of Infergen (IFG) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has not yet been reported. Therefore, for the first time, we have studied the influence of IFG in constraining the survival of Mtb in human macrophages. We observed that IFG significantly enhanced the maturation and activation of macrophages. Further, it substantially augmented the secretion of IL-6, Nitric Oxide (NO) and antigen uptake. Moreover, macrophages exhibited remarkably higher bactericidal activity, as evidenced by reduction in the Mtb growth. Infergen-mediated mechanism was different from the type-1 interferons; since it worked through the activation of NF-κB, phosphorylation of STAT-3 and Akt-PI3K that improved the bactericidal activity through autophagy and NO release. In future, IFG immunotherapy can be a novel strategy for treating patients and controlling TB

    Triggering through NOD-2 differentiates bone marrow precursors to dendritic cells with potent bactericidal activity

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    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by activating naïve T cells. The role of pattern recognition receptors like Toll-Like Receptors and Nod-Like Receptors expressed on DCs is well-defined in the recognition of the pathogens. However, nothing is precisely studied regarding the impact of NOD-2 signaling during the differentiation of DCs. Consequently, we explored the role of NOD-2 signaling in the differentiation of DCs and therefore their capability to activate innate and adaptive immunity. Intriguingly, we observed that NOD-2 stimulated DCs (nDCs) acquired highly activated and matured phenotype and exhibited substantially greater bactericidal activity by robust production of nitric oxide. The mechanism involved in improving the functionality of nDCs was dependent on IFN-αβ signaling, leading to the activation of STAT pathways. Furthermore, we also observed that STAT-1 and STAT-4 dependent maturation and activation of DCs was under the feedback mechanism of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 proteins. nDCs acquired enhanced potential to activate chiefly Th1 and Th17 immunity. Taken together, these results suggest that nDCs can be exploited as an immunotherapeutic agent in bolstering host immunity and imparting protection against the pathogens

    Signaling through NOD-2 and TLR-4 bolsters the T cell priming capability of dendritic cells by inducing autophagy

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    T cells play a cardinal role in mediating protection against intracellular pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). It is important to understand the factors that govern the T cell response; thereby can modulate its activity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the major player in initiation and augmentation of T cell response. Targeting DCs to induce their optimum maturation and activation can lead to a better T cell response. Interestingly, we observed that combinatorial signaling of DCs through NOD-2 and TLR-4 fortified better yield of IL-12p40/70, IL-6 and IFN-╬│ and upregulated the expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules. Further, we noticed improved phagocytic capabilities of DCs. Furthermore, NOD-2 and TLR-4 induced autophagy in DCs, which enhanced the activation of T cells. This study signifies that NOD-2 and TLR-4 exhibit synergism in invigorating the activity of DCs. Consequently, this strategy may have significant immunotherapeutic potential in bolstering the function of DCs and thus improving the immunity against pathogens

    Curdlan Limits Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival Through STAT-1 Regulated Nitric Oxide Production

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    Host-directed therapies have emerged as an innovative and promising approach in tuberculosis (TB) treatment due to the observed limitations of current TB regimen such as lengthy duration and emergence of drug resistance. Thus, we explored the role of curdlan (beta glucan polysaccharide) as a novel strategy to activate macrophages against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The aim of the study was to investigate the role of curdlan in restricting the Mtb growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further, the immunomodulatory potential of curdlan against Mtb and the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. We found that curdlan treatment enhanced the antigen presentation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, Mtb uptake and killing activity of macrophages. In vivo studies showed that curdlan therapy significantly reduced the Mtb burden in lung and spleen of mice. Administration of curdlan triggered the protective Th1 and Th17 immunity while boosting the central and effector memory response in Mtb infected mice. Curdlan mediated anti-Mtb activity is through signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1), which regulates nitric oxide (NO) production through inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induction; along with this activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-╬║B) was also evident in Mtb infected macrophages. Thus, we demonstrate that curdlan exerts effective anti-tuberculous activity anti-tuberculous activity. It can be used as a potential host-directed therapy against Mtb

    TLR-3 Stimulation Skews M2 Macrophages to M1 Through IFN-╬▒╬▓ Signaling and Restricts Tumor Progression

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    During tumor progression, macrophages shift their protective M1-phenotype to pro-tumorigenic M2-subtype. Therefore, conversion of M2 to M1 phenotype may be a potential therapeutic intervention. TLRs are important pathogen recognition receptors expressed by cells of the immune system. Recently, a crucial role of TLR-3 has been suggested in cancer. Consequently, in the current study, we defined the role of TLR-3 in the reversion of M2-macrophages to M1. We analyzed the role of TLR-3 stimulation for skewing M2-macrophages to M1 at mRNA and protein level through qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, western blotting, and ELISA. The effectiveness of TLR-3L stimulation to revert M2-macrophages to M1 was evaluated in the murine tumor model. To determine the role of IFN-╬▒╬▓ signaling in vitro and in vivo, we used Ifnar1Ôłĺ/Ôłĺ macrophages and anti-IFN-╬▒╬▓ antibodies, respectively. We observed upregulation of M1-specific markers MHC-II and costimulatory molecules like CD86, CD80, and CD40 on M2-macrophages upon TLR-3 stimulation. In contrast, reduced expression of M2-indicators CD206, Tim-3, and pro-inflammatory cytokines was noticed. The administration of TLR-3L in the murine tumor reverted the M2-macrophages to M1-phenotype and regressed the tumor growth. The mechanism deciphered for macrophage reversion and controlling the tumor growth is dependent on IFN-╬▒╬▓ signaling pathway. The results indicate that the signaling through TLR-3 is important in protection against tumors by skewing M2-macrophages to protective M1-subtype

    Alteration in the gut microbiota provokes susceptibility to tuberculosis

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    AbstractThe microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mtb in the lungs, liver and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota. Interestingly, dysbiosis of microbes showed significant increase in the bacterial burden in lungs and dissemination of Mtb to spleen and liver. Further, elevation in the number of Tregs and decline in the pool of IFN-╬│ and TNF-╬▒ releasing CD4 T cells was noticed. Interestingly, fecal transplantation in the gut microbiota disrupted animals exhibited improved Th1 immunity and lesser Tregs population. Importantly, these animals displayed reduced severity to Mtb infection. This study for the first time demonstrated the novel role of gut microbes in the susceptibility to TB and its prevention by microbial implants. In future, microbial therapies may help in treating patients suffering from TB

    Morbid Sequences Suggest Molecular Mimicry between Microbial Peptides and Self-Antigens: A Possibility of Inciting Autoimmunity

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    Understanding etiology of autoimmune diseases has been a great challenge for designing drugs and vaccines. The pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases may be attributed to molecular mimicry provoked by microbes. Molecular mimicry hypothesizes that a sequence homology between foreign and self-peptides leads to cross-activation of autoreactive T cells. Different microbial proteins are implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, human type 1 diabetes, primary biliary cirrhosis and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be imperative to identify the microbial epitopes that initiate the activation of autoreactive T cells. Consequently, in the present study, we employed immunoinformatics tools to delineate homologous antigenic regions between microbes and human proteins at not only the sequence level but at the structural level too. Interestingly, many cross-reactive MHC class II binding epitopes were detected from an array of microbes. Further, these peptides possess a potential to skew immune response toward Th1-like patterns. The present study divulges many microbial target proteins, their putative MHC-binding epitopes, and predicted structures to establish the fact that both sequence and structure are two important aspects for understanding the relationship between molecular mimicry and autoimmune diseases. Such findings may enable us in designing potential immunotherapies to tolerize autoreactive T cells