37 research outputs found

    Mutant plasmid with exorbitantly high copy number is invaded back by wild type plasmid.

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    <p>(A) Populations of host cells and (B) proportions of plasmids in host cells with multiple infection. <i>δ</i> = 5 all other parameters as in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009328#pone-0009328-g002" target="_blank">Fig 2</a>.</p

    The maximum intra-host plasmid fitness as a function of plasmid cost.

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    <p>The lines show the limit of intra-host fitness above which the wild type can back invade. In presence of the non-conjugal cheaters the limit is substantially reduced. All other parameters as in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009328#pone-0009328-g002" target="_blank">Fig 2</a>.</p

    A conceptual diagram based on generalization from many numerical results, depicting the effect of intra and inter-host fitness on realized fitness.

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    <p>(A) The realized fitness is a saturating function of intra-host fitness and an exponential function of inter-host fitness. As a result of the different nature of the two curves, RPS like dynamics results which is depicted schematically in (B). Arrows indicate the direction of evolutionary change. Mutants with slightly higher copy numbers can invade lower copy number plasmids owing to higher intra-host fitness. As a result the mean copy number increases, however the effect of intra-host fitness is saturating and therefore at a certain stage the reducing positive increment in realized fitness is over-compensated by increasing negative contribution of inter-host fitness difference. At this stage a low copy number plasmid can back invade resulting into a cyclic evolutionary dynamics.</p

    Dynamics of change in the population of cell types.

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    <p>Dynamics of change in the population of cell types.</p

    Symbols used in the model with description.

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    <p>*<i>i</i> ∈ <i>lc</i>, <i>ln</i>, <i>hc</i>, <i>hn</i>.</p

    The interaction of the two types of cheaters.

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    <p>Successful invasion of <i>hc</i> plasmid by <i>hn</i> plasmid in cells with multiple infection brings the wild type back (A, B). Parameter values for the figure are as per <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009328#pone-0009328-g002" target="_blank">Fig. 2</a>. In the absence of <i>hn</i> plasmid, for the same parameters, <i>hc</i> plasmid dominates the population (C and D).</p

    Dynamics of change in the proportion of different plasmids in multi-plasmid infected cell.

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    <p>Dynamics of change in the proportion of different plasmids in multi-plasmid infected cell.</p

    Invasion by a mutant plasmid with higher fitness (<i>hc</i> plasmid).

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    <p>(A) Populations of host cells and (B) proportions of plasmids in host cells with multiple infection. Parameter values for the figure are <i>μ</i> = 0.2, <i>λ</i> = 0.02, <i>φ</i> = 0.004, <i>ε</i> = 0.01, <i>β<sub>l</sub></i> = 0.05, <i>β<sub>h</sub></i> = 0.05, <i>δ</i> = 0.5.</p

    Transformations of cell types due to conjugation and segregation of plasmids.

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    <p>Only one plasmid is assumed to get transferred or get cured at a time. Therefore <i>x</i><sub>0</sub> cannot be directly transformed into <i>x<sub>m</sub></i> and vice versa. Black arrows indicate conjugation and grey straight arrow indicates curing of plasmid. Curved grey arrows are intrinsic growth rates of respective cell types. Symbols used for the model are explained in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009328#pone-0009328-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>.</p

    Supplemental Material for Shukla et al., 2018

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    Supplementary Figures for Manuscript "Stonewall and Brickwall: Two partially redundant determinants required for the maintenance of female germline in <i>Drosophila"</i
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