454 research outputs found

    Mirror Descent and Convex Optimization Problems With Non-Smooth Inequality Constraints

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    We consider the problem of minimization of a convex function on a simple set with convex non-smooth inequality constraint and describe first-order methods to solve such problems in different situations: smooth or non-smooth objective function; convex or strongly convex objective and constraint; deterministic or randomized information about the objective and constraint. We hope that it is convenient for a reader to have all the methods for different settings in one place. Described methods are based on Mirror Descent algorithm and switching subgradient scheme. One of our focus is to propose, for the listed different settings, a Mirror Descent with adaptive stepsizes and adaptive stopping rule. This means that neither stepsize nor stopping rule require to know the Lipschitz constant of the objective or constraint. We also construct Mirror Descent for problems with objective function, which is not Lipschitz continuous, e.g. is a quadratic function. Besides that, we address the problem of recovering the solution of the dual problem

    Cochlear implantation in post-lingually deafened adults and elderly patients: analysis of audiometric and speech perception outcomes during the first year of use

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    Questo studio è volto alla valutazione degli outcomes audiometrici e logopedici dei pazienti anziani portatori di impianto cocleare durante il primo anno di utilizzo del dispositivo. Sono stati valutati 42 pazienti impiantati tra marzo 2010 e settembre 2014 presso lUO ORL dellAzienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Padova. Sono stati inclusi nello studio pazienti affetti da sordità bilaterale postlinguale di grado severo-profondo impiantati unilateralmente. I soggetti sono stati divisi in tre gruppi in base allepoca della chirurgia: 14 soggetti con impianto fra i 35 e i 49 anni, 14 fra i 50 e i 64 anni e 14 impiantati a unetà superiore di 65 anni. Tutti i pazienti sono stati valutati prima e dopo la chirurgia (a 1, 3, 6 e 12 mesi di follow-up) attraverso lesecuzione di: audiometria tonale, audiometria vocale, test logopedici e somministrazione del questionario delle categorie percettive (CAP). Lanalisi statistica è stata effettuata attraverso il Students t-test. La totalità dei soggetti nei tre gruppi hanno dimostrato significativi miglioramenti allaudiometria tonale e vocale ai controlli post chirurgici rispetto alle performance ottenute precedentemente allimpianto. In particolare si sono verificati miglioramenti della soglia audiometrica media (PTA) senza differenze statisticamente significative tra i tre gruppi. risultati ottenuti nei test logopedici e dalla somministrazione del CAP hanno dimostrato evidenti miglioramenti in tutti i tre gruppi in studio. Abbiamo riscontrato, però, che i soggetti più giovani hanno raggiunto maggiori punteggi ai controlli post impianto rispetto a quelli più anziani. Concludendo, possiamo affermare che limpianto cocleare è un trattamento efficace per soggetti affetti da ipoacusia severa-profonda senza differenze significative nelle performance audiologiche e logopediche in relazione alletà di impianto. Anche se più lentamente, i pazienti impiantati dopo i 65 anni di età raggiungono performance ottimali e possono essere ritenuti dei candidati ottimali allintervento

    Circle grid fractal plate as a turbulent generator for premixed flame: an overview

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    This review paper focuses to ascertain a new approach in turbulence generation on the structure of premixed flames and external combustion using a fractal grid pattern. This review paper discusses the relationship between fractal pattern and turbulence flow. Many researchers have explored the fractal pattern as a new concept of turbulence generators, but researchers rarely study fractal turbulence generators on the structure premixed flame. The turbulent flow field characteristics have been studied tand investigated in a premixed combustion application. In terms of turbulence intensity, most researchers used fractal grid that can be tailored so that they can design the characteristic needed in premixed flame. This approach makes it extremely difficult to determine the exact turbulent burning velocity on the velocity fluctuation of the flow. The decision to carry out additional research on the effect circle grid fractal plate as a turbulent generator for premixed flame should depends on the blockage ratio and fractal pattern of the grid. 1

    Delineating the role of FANCA in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in β cells through its protein interactome

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    Hyperinsulinemia affects 72% of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients and an additional 25% experience lowered glucose tolerance or frank diabetes. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the dysfunction of FA pancreas β cells is unknown. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the functional role of FANCA, the most commonly mutated gene in FA, in glucosestimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This study reveals that FANCA or FANCB knockdown impairs GSIS in human pancreas β cell line EndoC-βH3. To identify potential pathways by which FANCA might regulate GSIS, we employed a proteomics approach to identify FANCA protein interactions in EndoC-βH3 differentially regulated in response to elevated glucose levels. Glucose-dependent changes in the FANCA interaction network were observed, including increased association with other FA family proteins, suggesting an activation of the DNA damage response in response to elevated glucose levels. Reactive oxygen species increase in response to glucose stimulation and are necessary for GSIS in EndoC-βH3 cells. Glucose-induced activation of the DNA damage response was also observed as an increase in the DNA damage foci marker γ-H2AX and dependent upon the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results illuminate the role of FANCA in GSIS and its protein interactions regulated by glucose stimulation that may explain the prevalence of β cell-specific endocrinopathies in FA patients

    Nebulin and Titin Modulate Cross-bridge Cycling and Length-dependent Calcium Sensitivity

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    Various mutations in the structural proteins nebulin and titin that are present in human disease are known to affect the contractility of striated muscle. Loss of nebulin is associated with reduced actin filament length and impairment of myosin binding to actin, whereas titin is thought to regulate muscle passive elasticity and is likely involved in length-dependent activation. Here, we sought to assess the modulation of muscle function by these sarcomeric proteins by using the computational platform muscle simulation code (MUSICO) to quantitatively separate the effects of structural changes, kinetics of cross-bridge cycling, and calcium sensitivity of the thin filaments. The simulations show that variation in thin filament length cannot by itself account for experimental observations of the contractility in nebulin-deficient muscle, but instead must be accompanied by a decreased myosin binding rate. Additionally, to match the observed calcium sensitivity, the rate of TnI detachment from actin needed to be increased. Simulations for cardiac muscle provided quantitative estimates of the effects of different titin-based passive elasticities on muscle force and activation in response to changes in sarcomere length and interfilament lattice spacing. Predicted force–pCa relations showed a decrease in both active tension and sensitivity to calcium with a decrease in passive tension and sarcomere length. We conclude that this behavior is caused by partial redistribution of the muscle load between active muscle force and titin-dependent passive force, and also by redistribution of stretch along the thin filament, which together modulate the release of TnI from actin. These data help advance understanding of how nebulin and titin mutations affect muscle function

    Signal Fluctuation Sensitivity: An Improved Metric for Optimizing Detection of Resting-State fMRI Networks

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    Task-free connectivity analyses have emerged as a powerful tool in functional neuroimaging. Because the cross-correlations that underlie connectivity measures are sensitive to distortion of time-series, here we used a novel dynamic phantom to provide a ground truth for dynamic fidelity between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-like inputs and fMRI outputs. We found that the de facto quality-metric for task-free fMRI, temporal signal to noise ratio (tSNR), correlated inversely with dynamic fidelity; thus, studies optimized for tSNR actually produced time-series that showed the greatest distortion of signal dynamics. Instead, the phantom showed that dynamic fidelity is reasonably approximated by a measure that, unlike tSNR, dissociates signal dynamics from scanner artifact. We then tested this measure, signal fluctuation sensitivity (SFS), against human resting-state data. As predicted by the phantom, SFS—and not tSNR—is associated with enhanced sensitivity to both local and long-range connectivity within the brain's default mode network

    Studies of new Higgs boson interactions through nonresonant HH production in the b¯bγγ fnal state in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for nonresonant Higgs boson pair production in the b ¯bγγ fnal state is performed using 140 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This analysis supersedes and expands upon the previous nonresonant ATLAS results in this fnal state based on the same data sample. The analysis strategy is optimised to probe anomalous values not only of the Higgs (H) boson self-coupling modifer κλ but also of the quartic HHV V (V = W, Z) coupling modifer κ2V . No signifcant excess above the expected background from Standard Model processes is observed. An observed upper limit µHH < 4.0 is set at 95% confdence level on the Higgs boson pair production cross-section normalised to its Standard Model prediction. The 95% confdence intervals for the coupling modifers are −1.4 < κλ < 6.9 and −0.5 < κ2V < 2.7, assuming all other Higgs boson couplings except the one under study are fxed to the Standard Model predictions. The results are interpreted in the Standard Model efective feld theory and Higgs efective feld theory frameworks in terms of constraints on the couplings of anomalous Higgs boson (self-)interactions