124 research outputs found

    Barley Ror1 encodes a class XI myosin required for mlo-based broad-spectrum resistance to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen

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    Loss-of-function alleles of plant MLO genes confer broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildews in many eudicot and monocot species. Although barley (Hordeum vulgare) mlo mutants have been used in agriculture for more than 40 years, understanding of the molecular principles underlying this type of disease resistance remains fragmentary. Forward genetic screens in barley have revealed mutations in two Required for mlo resistance (Ror) genes that partially impair immunity conferred by mlo mutants. While Ror2 encodes a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attached protein receptor (SNARE), the identity of Ror1, located at the pericentromeric region of barley chromosome 1H, remained elusive. We report the identification of Ror1 based on combined barley genomic sequence information and transcriptomic data from ror1 mutant plants. Ror1 encodes the barley class XI myosin Myo11A (HORVU.MOREX.r3.1HG0046420). Single amino acid substitutions of this myosin, deduced from non-functional ror1 mutant alleles, map to the nucleotide-binding region and the interface between the relay-helix and the converter domain of the motor protein. Ror1 myosin accumulates transiently in the course of powdery mildew infection. Functional fluorophore-labeled Ror1 variants associate with mobile intracellular compartments that partially colocalize with peroxisomes. Single-cell expression of the Ror1 tail region causes a dominant-negative effect that phenocopies ror1 loss-of-function mutants. We define a myosin motor for the establishment of mlo-mediated resistance, suggesting that motor protein-driven intracellular transport processes are critical for extracellular immunity, possibly through the targeted transfer of antifungal and/or cell wall cargoes to pathogen contact sites

    Microscopic Analysis of Severe Structural Rearrangements of the Plant Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Caused by Overexpression of Poa semilatent virus Movement Protein

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    Cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses is mediated by virus-encoded movement proteins and occurs through plasmodesmata interconnecting neighboring cells in plant tissues. Three movement proteins coded by the “triple gene block” (TGB) and named TGBp1, TGBp2 and TGBp3 have distinct functions in viral transport. TGBp1 binds viral genomic RNAs to form ribonucleoprotein complexes representing the transport form of viral genome, while TGBp2 and TGBp3 are necessary for intracellular delivery of such complexes to plasmodesmata. Recently, it was revealed that overexpression of Potato virus X TGBp3 triggers the unfolded protein response mitigating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to cell death if this protein reaches high levels in the ER. Here we report microscopic studies of the influence of the Poa semilatent hordeivirus TGBp3 overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells by particle bombardment on cell endomembranes and demonstrate that the protein C-terminal transmembrane segment contains a determinant responsible for vesiculation and coalescence of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi presumably accompanying the ER stress that can be induced upon high-level TGBp3 expression

    Actin filament dynamics are dominated by rapid growth and severing activity in the Arabidopsis cortical array

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    Metazoan cells harness the power of actin dynamics to create cytoskeletal arrays that stimulate protrusions and drive intracellular organelle movements. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is understood to participate in cell elongation; however, a detailed description and molecular mechanism(s) underpinning filament nucleation, growth, and turnover are lacking. Here, we use variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) to examine the organization and dynamics of the cortical cytoskeleton in growing and nongrowing epidermal cells. One population of filaments in the cortical array, which most likely represent single actin filaments, is randomly oriented and highly dynamic. These filaments grow at rates of 1.7 µm/s, but are generally short-lived. Instead of depolymerization at their ends, actin filaments are disassembled by severing activity. Remodeling of the cortical actin array also features filament buckling and straightening events. These observations indicate a mechanism inconsistent with treadmilling. Instead, cortical actin filament dynamics resemble the stochastic dynamics of an in vitro biomimetic system for actin assembly

    Organisationsentwicklung und Organisationsberatung im Zeichen reflexiver Modernisierung

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    Die Vorstellungen und praktizierten Formen von Organisationsentwicklung und Organisationsberatung sind derzeit von einem Übergang von der klassischen zur reflexiven Modernisierung geprägt. Während die Bereitschaft wächst, die Modernisierung moderner Organisationen nicht mehr nach dem klassischen Rationalmodell der Organisation zu kozipieren, erweist sich dieses angesichts widersprüchlicher Erwartungen in der Praxis als außerordentlich hartnäckig und robust. Am Beispiel der Organisationsentwicklung und Organisationsberatung in Ostdeutschland wird gezeigt, dass auch eine neue Chancen eröffnende Umbruch- und Krisensituation nicht zu einer Abkehr von der klassischen Modernisierung genutzt werden konnte

    Actin filament dynamics are dominated by rapid growth and severing activity in the Arabidopsis cortical array

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    Metazoan cells harness the power of actin dynamics to create cytoskeletal arrays that stimulate protrusions and drive intracellular organelle movements. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is understood to participate in cell elongation; however, a detailed description and molecular mechanism(s) underpinning filament nucleation, growth, and turnover are lacking. Here, we use variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) to examine the organization and dynamics of the cortical cytoskeleton in growing and nongrowing epidermal cells. One population of filaments in the cortical array, which most likely represent single actin filaments, is randomly oriented and highly dynamic. These filaments grow at rates of 1.7 µm/s, but are generally short-lived. Instead of depolymerization at their ends, actin filaments are disassembled by severing activity. Remodeling of the cortical actin array also features filament buckling and straightening events. These observations indicate a mechanism inconsistent with treadmilling. Instead, cortical actin filament dynamics resemble the stochastic dynamics of an in vitro biomimetic system for actin assembly
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