247 research outputs found

    Longitudinal Screening Detects Cognitive Stability and Behavioral Deterioration in ALS Patients

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    Objective. To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods. We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes. Change in cognitive/behavioral subgroups was assessed using one-way analyses of covariance. Results. Participants with follow-up data had fewer baseline behavior problems compared to patients without follow-up data. We found significant worsening of behavior (ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS CBS) behavioral scale, p \u3c 0.001; Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS (FBI-ALS) disinhibition subscale, p = 0.044). Item analysis suggested change in frustration tolerance, insight, mental rigidity, and interests (p \u3c 0.05). Changes in ALSFRS-R correlated with the ALS CBS. Worsening disinhibition (FBI-ALS) did not correlate with ALSFRS-R, FVC, or disease duration. Conclusion. We did not detect cognitive change. Behavioral change was detected, and increased disinhibition was found among patients with abnormal baseline behavioral scores. Disinhibition changes did not correlate with disease duration or progression. Baseline behavioral problems were associated with advanced, rapidly progressive disease and study attrition

    Longitudinal Screening Detects Cognitive Stability and Behavioral Deterioration in ALS Patients.

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    ObjectiveTo evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS).MethodsWe analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes. Change in cognitive/behavioral subgroups was assessed using one-way analyses of covariance.ResultsParticipants with follow-up data had fewer baseline behavior problems compared to patients without follow-up data. We found significant worsening of behavior (ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS CBS) behavioral scale, p < 0.001; Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS (FBI-ALS) disinhibition subscale, p = 0.044). Item analysis suggested change in frustration tolerance, insight, mental rigidity, and interests (p < 0.05). Changes in ALSFRS-R correlated with the ALS CBS. Worsening disinhibition (FBI-ALS) did not correlate with ALSFRS-R, FVC, or disease duration.ConclusionWe did not detect cognitive change. Behavioral change was detected, and increased disinhibition was found among patients with abnormal baseline behavioral scores. Disinhibition changes did not correlate with disease duration or progression. Baseline behavioral problems were associated with advanced, rapidly progressive disease and study attrition

    War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study

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    BACKGROUND: Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008) which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting.This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) medical intervention. METHODS: The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. RESULTS: Over a quarter (28.6%) of the women (n = 573) reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4%) and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%), while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20). The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and sexual dysfunction. In a multivariable analysis the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint' remained significantly associated with war related sexual violence. CONCLUSION: The results from this study demonstrate that war related sexual violence is independently associated with the later development of specific gynaecological complaints

    Copy Number Variants in Extended Autism Spectrum Disorder Families Reveal Candidates Potentially Involved in Autism Risk

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    Copy number variations (CNVs) are a major cause of genetic disruption in the human genome with far more nucleotides being altered by duplications and deletions than by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the multifaceted etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), CNVs appear to contribute significantly to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease. A unique resource of 42 extended ASD families was genotyped for over 1 million SNPs to detect CNVs that may contribute to ASD susceptibility. Each family has at least one avuncular or cousin pair with ASD. Families were then evaluated for co-segregation of CNVs in ASD patients. We identified a total of five deletions and seven duplications in eleven families that co-segregated with ASD. Two of the CNVs overlap with regions on 7p21.3 and 15q24.1 that have been previously reported in ASD individuals and two additional CNVs on 3p26.3 and 12q24.32 occur near regions associated with schizophrenia. These findings provide further evidence for the involvement of ICA1 and NXPH1 on 7p21.3 in ASD susceptibility and highlight novel ASD candidates, including CHL1, FGFBP3 and POUF41. These studies highlight the power of using extended families for gene discovery in traits with a complex etiology

    Evidence of novel finescale structural variation at autism spectrum disorder candidate loci

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    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a core set of social-communicative and behavioral impairments. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, acting primarily via the GABA receptors (GABR). Multiple lines of evidence, including altered GABA and GABA receptor expression in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system may be involved in the etiology of autism. Methods: As copy number variations (CNVs), particularly rare and de novo CNVs, have now been implicated in ASD risk, we examined the GABA receptors and genes in related pathways for structural variation that may be associated with autism. We further extended our candidate gene set to include 19 genes and regions that had either been directly implicated in the autism literature or were directly related (via function or ancestry) to these primary candidates. For the high resolution CNV screen we employed custom-designed 244 k comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays. Collectively, our probes spanned a total of 11 Mb of GABA-related and additional candidate regions with a density of approximately one probe every 200 nucleotides, allowing a theoretical resolution for detection of CNVs of approximately 1 kb or greater on average. One hundred and sixty-eight autism cases and 149 control individuals were screened for structural variants. Prioritized CNV events were confirmed using quantitative PCR, and confirmed loci were evaluated on an additional set of 170 cases and 170 control individuals that were not included in the original discovery set. Loci that remained interesting were subsequently screened via quantitative PCR on an additional set of 755 cases and 1,809 unaffected family members. Results: Results include rare deletions in autistic individuals at JAKMIP1, NRXN1, Neuroligin4Y, OXTR, and ABAT. Common insertion/deletion polymorphisms were detected at several loci, including GABBR2 and NRXN3. Overall, statistically significant enrichment in affected vs. unaffected individuals was observed for NRXN1 deletions. Conclusions: These results provide additional support for the role of rare structural variation in ASD

    Molecular data from the holotype of the enigmatic Bornean Black Shrew, Suncus ater Medway, 1965 (Soricidae, Crocidurinae), place it in the genus Palawanosorex

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    Although Borneo has received more attention from biologists than most other islands in the Malay Archipelago, many questions regarding the systematic relationships of Bornean mammals remain. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from the holotype of Suncus ater, the only known specimen of this shrew. Several shrews collected recently in Sarawak are closely aligned, both morphologically and mitochondrially, with the holotype of S. ater. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial sequences indicate that the S. ater holotype and new Sarawak specimens do not belong to the genus Suncus, but instead are most closely related to Palawanosorex muscorum. Until now Palawanosorex has been known only from the neighboring Philippine island of Palawan. Additional sequences from nuclear ultra-conserved elements from the new Sarawak specimens strongly support a sister relationship to P. muscorum. We therefore transfer ater to Palawanosorex. The new specimens demonstrate that P. ater is more widespread in northern Borneo than previously recorded. Continued sampling of Bornean mammal diversity and reexamination of type material are critical in understanding the evolutionary history of the biologically rich Malay Archipelago

    Islands of relationality and resilience: the shifting stakes of the Anthropocene

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    In recent decades island studies scholars have done much to disrupt static notions of the island form, increasingly foregrounding how islands form part of complex networks of relations, assemblages and flows. In this paper, we shift the terms of debate more explicitly to relationality in the Anthropocene. We consider the implications and challenges that a wider set of debates, particularly surrounding island ‘resilience’, concerning the Anthropocene in the social sciences and humanities pose for island studies
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