8 research outputs found

    A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Aerobic Vaginitis: Azithromycin Liposomes-in-Chitosan Hydrogel

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    Biocompatible mucoadhesive formulations that enable a sustained drug delivery at the site of action, while exhibiting inherent antimicrobial activity, are of great importance for improved local therapy of vaginal infections. The aim of this research was to prepare and evaluate the potential of the several types of azithromycin (AZM)-liposomes (180–250 nm) incorporated into chitosan hydrogel (AZM-liposomal hydrogels) for the treatment of aerobic vaginitis. AZM-liposomal hydrogels were characterized for in vitro release, and rheological, texture, and mucoadhesive properties under conditions simulating the vaginal site of application. The role of chitosan as a hydrogel-forming polymer with intrinsic antimicrobial properties was explored against several bacterial strains typical for aerobic vaginitis as well as its potential effect on the anti-staphylococcal activity of AZM-liposomes. Chitosan hydrogel prolonged the release of the liposomal drug and exhibited inherent antimicrobial activity. Additionally, it boosted the antibacterial effect of all tested AZM-liposomes. All AZM-liposomal hydrogels were biocompatible with the HeLa cells and demonstrated mechanical properties suitable for vaginal application, thus confirming their potential for enhanced local therapy of aerobic vaginitis

    Azithromycin-liposomes as a novel approach for localized therapy of cervicovaginal bacterial infections

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    Background: Efficient localized cervicovaginal antibacterial therapy, enabling the delivery of antibiotic to the site of action at lower doses while escaping systemic drug effects and reducing the risk of developing microbial resistance, is attracting considerable attention. Liposomes have been shown to allow sustained drug release into vaginal mucosa and improve delivery of antibiotics to bacterial cells and biofilms Azithromycin (AZI), a potent broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic, has not yet been investigated for localized therapy of cervicovaginal infections, although it is administered orally for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Encapsulation of AZI in liposomes could improve its solubility, antibacterial activity, and allow the prolonged drug release in the cervicovaginal tissue, while avoiding systemic side effects. Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop AZI-liposomes and explore their potentials for treating cervicovaginal infections. Methods: AZI-liposomes that differed in bilayer elasticity/rigidity and surface charge were prepared and evaluated under simulated cervicovaginal conditions to yield optimized liposomes, which were assessed for antibacterial activity against several planktonic and biofilm-forming Escherichia coli strains and intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis, ex vivo AZI vaginal deposition/penetration, and in vitro cytotoxicity toward cervical cells. Results: Negatively charged liposomes with rigid bilayers (CL-3), propylene glycol liposomes (PGL-2) and deformable propylene glycol liposomes (DPGL-2) were efficient against planktonic E. coli ATCC 700928 and K-12. CL-3 was superior for preventing the formation of E. coli ATCC 700928 and K-12 biofilms, with IC50 values (concentrations that inhibit biofilm viability by 50%) up to 8-fold lower than those of the control (free AZI). DPGL-2 was the most promising for eradication of already formed E. coli biofilms and for treating C. trachomatis infections. All AZI-liposomes were biocompatible with cervical cells and improved localization of the drug inside vaginal tissue compared with the control. Conclusion: The performed studies confirm the potentials of AZI-liposomes for localized cervicovaginal therapy.Peer reviewe

    Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal white brined Golija cows’ milk cheeses

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    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of artisanal Golija raw and cooked cows' milk cheeses traditionally manufactured without the addition of starter culture. A total of 188 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates of Golija cheeses were obtained from seven samples of different ripening time. Phenotype-based assays as well as rep-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were undertaken for all 188 LAB strains. The most diverse species were isolated from 20-day-old BGGO8 cheese (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus sucicola, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis by. diacetylactis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides). In other Golija cheeses Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were found. Pronounced antimicrobial properties showed enterococci (13/42) and lactococci (12/31), while the good proteolytic activity demonstrated lactococci (13/31) and lactobacilli (10/29)

    Folic acid affects cardiometabolic, oxidative stress, and immunohistochemical parameters in monocrotaline-induced rat heart failure

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    Heart failure (HF) is one of the major cardiovascular causes of death worldwide. In this study, we explored the effects of folic acid (FA) on cardiometabolic, oxidative stress biomarker changes, and the activity of proliferation marker Ki67 in monocrotaline-induced HF. The research was conducted during a 4 week period using five experimental groups (eight animals per group): blank solution exposed controls (C1: 1 mL/kg physiological saline, 1 day; C2: 1 mL/kg physiological saline, 28 days), monocrotaline (MCT) induced HF (50 mg/kg MCT), FA (5 mg·kg−1·day−1 FA), and MCT+FA (50 mg/kg MCT, 5 mg·kg−1·day−1 FA). Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities together with total glutathione and parameters of oxidative damage of proteins were determined in cardiac tissue as well as cardiometabolic parameters in plasma or serum. The total glutathionylation was determined by Western blot and proliferation marker Ki67 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The right ventricular (RV) wall hypertrophy and Ki67 positivity, accompanied by a significant increase of troponin T, has been shown in MCT-induced HF. The antioxidant effect of FA was reflected through superoxide dismutase activity, reduced Ki67 positivity in the RV wall, and a slightly decreased total glutathionylation level.The accepted manuscript in pdf format is listed with the files at the bottom of this page. The presentation of the authors' names and (or) special characters in the title of the manuscript may differ slightly between what is listed on this page and what is listed in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript; that in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript is what was submitted by the author

    The influence of subchronic co-application of vitamins B6 and folic acid on cardiac oxidative stress and biochemical markers in monocrotaline-induced heart failure in male Wistar albino rats

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    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that subchronic co-application of vitamins B6 and folic acid (FA) could affect heart failure (HF) induced by monocrotaline (MCT), with the modulation of oxidative stress parameters and cardiometabolic biomarkers. Biochemical and histomorphometric analyses were assessed in blank solution-exposed controls (C1 physiological saline 1 mL/kg, 1 day, n = 8; C2 physiological saline 1 mL/kg, 28 days, n = 8), MCT-induced HF (MCT 50 mg/kg, n = 8), B6+FA (vitamin B6 7 mg·kg–1·day–1, FA 5 mg·kg–1·day–1; n = 8), and MCT+B6+FA (MCT 50 mg/kg, vitamin B6 7 mg·kg–1·day–1, FA 5 mg·kg–1·day–1; n = 8) in male Wistar albino rats (body mass 160 g at the start). Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, thiol-, carbonyl groups, and nitrotyrosine were determined in cardiac tissue. Echocardiography was performed to confirm MCT-induced HF. The right ventricular wall hypertrophy, accompanied with significant increase of troponin T and preserved renal and liver function, has been shown in MCT-induced HF. However, these effects were not related to antioxidant effects of vitamin B6 and FA, since several parameters of oxidative stress were more pronounced after treatment. In this study, co-application of vitamins B6 and FA did not attenuate hypertrophy of the right ventricle wall but aggravated oxidative stress, which is involved in HF pathogenesis.The accepted manuscript in pdf format is listed with the files at the bottom of this page. The presentation of the authors' names and (or) special characters in the title of the manuscript may differ slightly between what is listed on this page and what is listed in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript; that in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript is what was submitted by the author

    Expression of bacteriocin LsbB is dependent on a transcription terminator

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    The production of LsbB, leaderless class II bacteriocin, is encoded by genes (lsbB and lmrB) located on plasmid pMN5 in Lactococcus lactis BGMN1-5. Heterologous expression of the lsbB gene using the pAZIL vector (pAZIL-lsbB) in L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG7284 resulted in a significant reduction (more than 30 times) of bacteriocin LsbB expression. Subcloning and deletion experiments with plasmid pMN5 revealed that full expression of LsbB requires the presence of a complete transcription terminator located downstream of the lsbB gene. RNA stability analysis revealed that the presence of a transcription terminator increased the RNA stability by three times and the expression of LsbB by 30 times. The study of the influence of transcription terminator on the expression of other bacteriocin genes (lcnB, for lactococcin B production) indicated that this translational terminator likely functions in a lsbB-specific manner rather than in a general manner