144 research outputs found

    Banana pseudostem sap and boric acid— A new green intumescent for making self- extinguishing cotton fabric

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    The flame retardant functionality has been imparted in cellulosic fabric using mixed formulation of banana pseudostem sap (BPS) and boric acid (BA). The extracted sap is mixed with different concentration of BA and applied onto the. pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics at elevated temperature. It is found that BA acts as a strong afterglow and smoke arresting agent, when applied at the concentration of > 2% (w/v). Flame retardant characteristics of both the control and the treated fabrics have been analysed in terms of limiting oxygen index, vertical flammability and temperature generation profile during burning. The (BPS+3% BA) treated cotton fabric sample shows the LOI value of 42 and the specific char length of 14cm after vertical flammability test. The thermal degradation and pyrolysis mechanism are also studied, using both thermogravimetric analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides, the charring morphology and mechanism of both the control and the treated fabric is analysed in detail by scanning electron microscopy and FTIR analysis. A char structure model and the mechanism of char formation have also been proposed in the paper

    Post Disaster Management of Mithi River Flood after July -2005 by HAVOC

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    The disaster of Mumbai, July 2005 a galvanised the concerned agencies into recognising the importance of the river, which in fact flows through the heart of Mumbai Suburbs. The authorities were willing now to recognise that the Mithi was a "river" and not a "nalla". The Mithi River Development and Protection Authority was established to initiate the study to identify the causes of pollution affecting the river and to suggest remedial measures. The authority conducted and environmental survey of the Mithi River to determine the pollution level of its water. I have tried to analyse the situation and have suggested guidelines for immediate actions as well as for long term measures. I have refrained from working out specific details of any proposals and it will be done as required by the concerned public agencies keeping in view of the guidelines suggested in this paper. Ours has not been a fault finding mission, but a serious exercise to understand as to which deficiencies need to be overcome, so as to be able to face calamitous situations as on 26th and 27th July,2005 in a better prepared way. We hope that our findings will help Mumbaikar?s to move in the right direction rapidly and with confidence

    Comparison of teneligliptin with sitagliptin as an add on to metformin in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an observational study

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    Background: Teneligliptin is a new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, available in India. It has been widely prescribed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) due to its low cost. However, there are few studies comparing it with other DPP-4 inhibitors. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of teneligliptin with sitagliptin in patients of T2 DM.Methods: Patients of T2 DM, attending the OPD of a hospital during the period of January to August 2017 were scrutinized. Those uncontrolled on metformin monotherapy (1 g/day) were selected and were administered either sitagliptin (100 mg/day) or teneligliptin (20 mg/day) in addition to metformin. Base-line clinical features (age, sex, body-weight, BP, pulse rate etc.) and laboratory parameters (hemogram, fasting blood sugar and postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, serum creatinine etc.) were recorded initially and at the end of three months. Side effects were assessed with the help of a questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed by student’s t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: 35 and 32 patients received sitagliptin and teneligliptin respectively. After 12 weeks of therapy, FBS, PPBS and HbA1c significantly reduced in both the groups as compared to base-line values. Both drugs were well tolerated. There was no significant difference in the glycemic parameters between the two groups at the end of the study.Conclusions: Teneligliptin significantly improved glycemic control in patients with T2 DM when prescribed as an add on to metformin. It was equally effective when compared to sitagliptin. As teneligliptin is less costly than other gliptins, it may be considered as a good cost-effective option as an add on to patients of T2 DM uncontrolled on metformin monotherapy.

    Expression of the myosin heavy chain IIB gene in porcine skeletal muscle: the role of the CArG-box promoter response element

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    Due to its similarity to humans, the pig is increasingly being considered as a good animal model for studying a range of human diseases. Despite their physiological similarities, differential expression of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIB gene (MYH4) exists in the skeletal muscles of these species, which is associated with a different muscle phenotype. The expression of different MyHC isoforms is a critical determinant of the contractile and metabolic characteristics of the muscle fibre. We aimed to elucidate whether a genomic mechanism was responsible for the drastically different expression of MYH4 between pigs and humans, thus improving our understanding of the pig as a model for human skeletal muscle research. We utilized approximately 1 kb of the MYH4 promoter from a domestic pig and a human (which do and do not express MYH4, respectively) to elucidate the role of the promoter sequence in regulating the high expression of MYH4 in porcine skeletal muscle. We identified a 3 bp genomic difference within the proximal CArG and Ebox region of the MYH4 promoter of pigs and humans that dictates the differential activity of these promoters during myogenesis. Subtle species-specific genomic differences within the CArG-box region caused differential protein-DNA interactions at this site and is likely accountable for the differential MYH4 promoter activity between pigs and humans. We propose that the genomic differences identified herein explain the differential activity of the MYH4 promoter of pigs and humans, which may contribute to the differential expression patterns displayed in these otherwise physiologically similar mammals. Further, we report that both the pig and human MYH4 promoters can be induced by MyoD over- expression, but the capacity to activate the MYH4 promoter is largely influenced by the 3 bp difference located within the CArG-box region of the proximal MYH4 promoter

    Identification and validation of the pathways and functions regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor, ROR alpha1, in skeletal muscle

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    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) alpha has been demonstrated to regulate lipid metabolism. We were interested in the RORα1 dependent physiological functions in skeletal muscle. This major mass organ accounts for ∼40% of the total body mass and significant levels of lipid catabolism, glucose disposal and energy expenditure. We utilized the strategy of targeted muscle-specific expression of a truncated (dominant negative) RORα1ΔDE in transgenic mice to investigate RORα1 signaling in this tissue. Expression profiling and pathway analysis indicated that RORα influenced genes involved in: (i) lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, cardiovascular and metabolic disease; (ii) LXR nuclear receptor signaling and (iii) Akt and AMPK signaling. This analysis was validated by quantitative PCR analysis using TaqMan low-density arrays, coupled to statistical analysis (with Empirical Bayes and Benjamini–Hochberg). Moreover, westerns and metabolic profiling were utilized to validate the genes, proteins and pathways (lipogenic, Akt, AMPK and fatty acid oxidation) involved in the regulation of metabolism by RORα1. The identified genes and pathways were in concordance with the demonstration of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, attenuated insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and impaired glucose uptake in the transgenic heterozygous Tg-RORα1ΔDE animals. In conclusion, we propose that RORα1 is involved in regulating the Akt2-AMPK signaling pathways in the context of lipid homeostasis in skeletal muscle

    Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

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    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases