22 research outputs found


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    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a compound which has been widely used as germicide. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of residual chlorothalonil in crops. Three monoclonal antibodies, mAbs 12E, 9A, and 11D were generated against bovine serum albumin-comjugated pentachlorophenol as a homologue of chlorothalonil. By using these mAbs, a direct competitive ELISA has been done. Detectable range of chlorothalonil in the ELISA was 1-3ng/ml for mAb 12E and 0.3-3ng/ml for both mAbs 11D and 9A. MAb 9A reacted with chlorothalonil 3 times stronger than another structurally related germicide fthalide, while mAb 11D reacted with fthalide 5 times stronger than chlorothalonil. The proposed ELISA with mAb 9A would be useful for convenient monitoring of residual chlorothalonil in crops

    EMPRESS. XI. SDSS and JWST Search for Local and z~4-5 Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies (EMPGs): Clustering and Chemical Properties of Local EMPGs

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    We search for local extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs), selecting photometric candidates by broadband color excess and machine-learning techniques with the SDSS photometric data. After removing stellar contaminants by shallow spectroscopy with Seimei and Nayuta telescopes, we confirm that three candidates are EMPGs with 0.05--0.1 ZZ_\odot by deep Magellan/MagE spectroscopy for faint {\sc[Oiii]}λ\lambda4363 lines. Using a statistical sample consisting of 105 spectroscopically-confirmed EMPGs taken from our study and the literature, we calculate cross-correlation function (CCF) of the EMPGs and all SDSS galaxies to quantify environments of EMPGs. Comparing another CCF of all SDSS galaxies and comparison SDSS galaxies in the same stellar mass range (107.0108.4M10^{7.0}-10^{8.4} M_\odot), we find no significant (>1σ>1\sigma) difference between these two CCFs. We also compare mass-metallicity relations (MZRs) of the EMPGs and those of galaxies at zz\sim 0--4 with a steady chemical evolution model and find that the EMPG MZR is comparable with the model prediction on average. These clustering and chemical properties of EMPGs are explained by a scenario of stochastic metal-poor gas accretion on metal-rich galaxies showing metal-poor star formation. Extending the broadband color-excess technique to a high-zz EMPG search, we select 17 candidates of zz\sim 4--5 EMPGs with the deep (30\simeq30 mag) near-infrared JWST/NIRCam images obtained by ERO and ERS programs. We find galaxy candidates with negligible {\sc[Oiii]}λλ\lambda\lambda4959,5007 emission weaker than the local EMPGs and known high-zz galaxies, suggesting that some of these candidates may fall in 0--0.01 ZZ_\odot, which potentially break the lowest metallicity limit known to date

    The Study report in AEgIS experiment

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    The AEgIS experiment aims to measuring for the first time the free fall of antihydrogen in the Earth’s gravitational field with percent order precision. In this summer student program, I was studying two topics of this experiment:​Lock-in measurement for photo-electrons from anion molecules and ​building a test set up of interferometer. Using the pure mcp background data, the signals corresponding time to the emissions of photo-electrons from anion molecules were selected. For building a test set up of interferometer,the optimization of laser couplings was done

    Student Session 2019

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    Reduced nasal nitric oxide levels in patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis

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    Background: In Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS), it is difficult to estimate the refractoriness and recurrence risk for each patient. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is known as a biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation in lower airway. It has been reported that nasal NO has some crucial functions in the upper and lower airways. However, in upper airway, paranasal sinuses, the usefulness of NO measurement remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to identify the usefulness of nasal NO measurement in ECRS and the involvement of nasal NO in the pathogenesis of ECRS. Methods: We compared the nasal NO levels of ECRS, non-ECRS, and normal control groups. Correlation between nasal NO levels and clinical findings were observed. Then, we compared nasal NO levels before and after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). We also examine whether nasal NO levels might discriminate ECRS by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Nasal NO levels were significantly decreased in ECRS compared to the other two groups. Moreover, nasal NO levels in ECRS significantly and negatively correlated with eosinophil levels and CT score. However, they did not correlate with the nasal polyp score. Nasal NO levels were not upregulated soon after opening the sinus ostium by ESS. The ROC curves for nasal NO levels were used to discriminate all CRS patients and ECRS patients from normal controls. Conclusions: Nasal NO may be useful as a marker of ECRS severity and low nasal NO levels in ECRS may contribute to its pathogenesis. Keywords: Asthma, Chronic rhinosinusitis, Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, Eosinophilic inflammation, Nasal nitric oxide leve

    Effect of Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Gly16Arg Polymorphism on Taste Preferences in Healthy Young Japanese Adults

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    The Gly16Arg polymorphism results in a G to C nucleotide mutation in the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene and has a relationship with obesity; however, this substitution’s effects on food preferences are unclear. Therefore, we determined this relationship among healthy young adults (mean age, 23.4; n = 52). To evaluate food preferences, four categories of food (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) along with high-fat foods were evaluated using a self-reporting questionnaire. Male (n = 26) and female subjects (n = 26) were genotyped for the polymorphism and further divided into three groups (two homozygous groups, GG, CC; and a heterozygous group, GC). Preference for sour foods in the GG group was higher compared with that in the CC group in females (p < 0.05). When sweet foods were classified into low- and high-fat subgroups, preference for high-fat sweet foods in the GG group was higher than that for low-fat sweet foods in all subjects (p < 0.05). The degree of preference for high-fat foods in the GG group was higher than other groups for males (p < 0.05). These results suggest that ADRB2 polymorphism is associated with food preference. Understanding the relationship of ADRB2 substitution to food preference will be valuable for designing individualized anti-obesity strategies

    Nattokinase, profibrinolytic enzyme, effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue and decreases viscosity of mucus

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    Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is often comorbid with asthma and resistant to therapeutic interventions. We recently reported that excessive fibrin deposition caused by impairment of fibrinolysis might play pivotal role in forming nasal polyp. Nattokinase (NK), a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis, has been reported to be a strong fibrinolytic enzyme. NK could be a promising drug candidate for use in the treatment of both CRSwNP and asthma. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NK on nasal polyp tissues from patients with CRSwNP. The nasal discharge from patients with CRSwNP and sputum from subjects with asthma were also used to investigate whether NK influences the viscosity of mucus. Methods: To examine the effects on NK on nasal polyp tissues, pieces of nasal polyps were incubated either with saline or NK (10–1000 FU/ml) at 37 °C for 24 h. We assessed the presence of fibrin in nasal polyp tissue incubated with NK by means of immunohistochemistry. To examine the effects of NK on nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, were incubated with NK solution at 37 °C for 1 h. Results: NK effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue through fibrin degradation. We also found that the viscosity of the nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, was significantly reduced by incubation with NK solution. Conclusions: NK may be an effective alternative therapeutic option in patients with CRSwNP and comorbid asthma by causing fibrin degradation

    Relationship between Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Subsequent Development of Asthma in Japanese Children

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    SUMMARY: Several studies in Western countries have found that lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infancy may subsequently trigger the development of asthma. In this study, we enrolled 262 infants under the age of 3 who had been admitted to our hospital with LRTI between September 2002 and August 2003. RSV infection was diagnosed in these patients using an RSV rapid diagnostic kit and by measuring antibody titers in paired serum samples. In March 2009, we sent questionnaires on post-discharge allergic conditions to the families of the 249 patients, excluding 13 who had a prior history of asthma. A total of 133 responses were received (response rate, 53.4z); RSV was detected in 36 patients of the RSV group and 97 patients of the non-RSV group. Wheezing was experienced post-discharge by 10 patients in the RSV group (27.8z) and 32 in the non-RSV group (33.0z) (P = 0.57). Four patients in the RSV group (11.1z) and 6 in the non-RSV group (6.2z) (P = 0.34) were treated for asthma. This study revealed that RSV LRTI in infancy does not predispose children to subsequent development of asthma at the age of 7 years and 7 months. We believe that this is the first Japanese survey that has examined the relationship between RSV LRTI in infancy and the subsequent development of asthma. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants. Almost all children are infected with RSV before they are 2 years old. Those at high risk include premature infants and children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or congenital heart defects, but RSV infections in healty infants can also be serious enough to necesssitate hospitalization (1,2). Children with RSV LRTI admitted to hospitals show airway hyper-responsiveness and are known to subsequently experience recurrent bouts of wheezing. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between RSV infections and the onset of recurrent wheezing and asthma and have suggested that RSV LRTIs may be a risk factor for asthma (3-11). However, most of these studies have been conducted in Western countries. Little is known about the risk factors for asthma in cases of Asian children, and significant international variations have been reported in the prevalence of asthma (12). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RSV LRTI and the subsequent development of asthma in Japanese children. We previously conducted a prospective survey of 262 children with LRTI, who were under the age of 3 years and had been admitted to our pediatric department. The study was carried out from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2003, in order to determine whether the 262 children with LRTI were infected with RSV (13). At the time of admission we collected nasal washing samples from the patients for antigen detection using the RSV rapid diagnostic kit (RSV Examan; Nippon Becton Dickinson Co., Tokyo, Japan). We also collected paired serum samples during and after the admission for measuring antibody titers using the complement fixation assay (SRL, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). Of the 262 patients, 66 were either positive for viral antigen or they showed seroconversion or a fourfold increase in the antibody titer, and these patients were designated as the RSV group (positive for RSV infection); the remaining 196 patients were designated as the non-RSV group. None of the patients from either of the groups were administered palivizumab. In March 2009, we administered questionnaires to the families of the 249 patients, excluding 13 patients with a history of asthma before admission. The questionnaires sought information on allergic conditions in the patients after their discharge from the hospital; it included questions on symptoms of wheezing, allergic conditions (asthma, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, and allergic rhinitis), and a family history of these conditions, and a history of RSV infections. Patients were considered as having a history of asthma if they had been diagnosed with asthma and treated by a physician. This survey was approved by the Konan Kosei Hospital Institutional Review Board. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's direct probability test and the t test; P º 0.05 was consi