72 research outputs found

    Can ultrasonography make identification of asymptomatic hyperuricemic individuals at risk for developing gouty arthritis more crystal clear?

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    Hyperuricemia is the most important risk factor for gouty arthritis. The quandary is how to predict which patient with asymptomatic hyperuricemia will develop gouty arthritis. Can ultrasonography help identify hyperuricemic individuals at risk for developing gouty arthritis? In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Pineda and colleagues found ultrasonography changes suggestive of gouty arthritis in 25% of hyperuricemic individuals. These were found exclusively in hyperuricemic individuals but not in normouricemic patients. Ultrasonography may serve as a noninvasive means to diagnose gouty arthritis in hyperuricemic individuals who have yet to develop symptomatic gouty arthritis

    Gout. Imaging of gout: findings and utility

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    Imaging is a helpful tool for clinicians to evaluate diseases that induce chronic joint inflammation. Chronic gout is associated with changes in joint structures that may be evaluated with diverse imaging techniques. Plain radiographs show typical changes only in advanced chronic gout. Computed tomography may best evaluate bone changes, whereas magnetic resonance imaging is suitable to evaluate soft tissues, synovial membrane thickness, and inflammatory changes. Ultrasonography is a tool that may be used in the clinical setting, allowing evaluation of cartilage, soft tissues, urate crystal deposition, and synovial membrane inflammation. Also ultrasound-guided puncture may be useful for obtaining samples for crystal observation. Any of these techniques deserve some consideration for feasibility and implementation both in clinical practice and as outcome measures for clinical trials. In clinical practice they may be considered mainly for evaluating the presence and extent of crystal deposition, and structural changes that may impair function or functional outcomes, and also to monitor the response to urate-lowering therapy

    Evaluation of Proposed Criteria for Remission and Evidence‐Based Development of Criteria for Complete Response in Patients With Chronic Refractory Gout

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/149519/1/acr21025.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/149519/2/acr21025_am.pd

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    ABSTRACT. Objective. To determine whether men with gout may have an increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) as compared with men without gout. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, men aged 18-89 presenting to the rheumatology clinic between August 26, 2010, and May 13, 2013, were Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in the general population, affecting about 50% of 40-to 70-year-old men 1 . The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development statement defined ED as the "inability of the male to attain and maintain erection of the penis sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse" 2 . The likelihood of ED increases with age, but is not an inevitable consequence of aging 2 . The importance of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) as an underlying cause of ED is well established 3,4 . This is not surprising because CVD and ED share mutual risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), advanced age, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, certain medications such as antidepressants, and tobacco abuse New evidence shows that hyperuricemia and inflammation may be independent risk factors for ED in addition to the established ones. In a recent study by Solak, et al 7 , of 312 men who underwent an exercise stress test because of chest pain, each 1 mg/dl increase in serum urate (SU) was associated with a 31% increased risk of ED. Compared with patients in the first quartile of SU level, those in the fourth quartile had a 2.6 times increased risk of ED. However, in an adjusted analysis for traditional CV risk factors, the relationship with SU was no longer significant. Another recent study, by Salem, et al 8 , evaluated SU level and the distribution of potential ED risk factors in 251 men with newly diagnosed ED versus 252 age-matched controls without ED. A significant difference was found between mean SU levels in men with ED (6.12 mg/dl) versus men without ED (4.97 mg/dl). The men in the highest tertile of SU level had a 6-fold increased risk of ED compared with men in the lowest tertile. Each 1 mg/dl increase in SU level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of ED. Inflammation, too, plays an important role in ED 9,10 . Low levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen exclude the presence of ED in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or with unfavorable risk factor

    Canakinumab reduces the risk of acute gouty arthritis flares during initiation of allopurinol treatment: results of a double-blind, randomised study

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    Objective This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1 beta monoclonal antibody, for prophylaxis against acute gouty arthritis flares in patients initiating urate-lowering treatment.Methods In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4 x 4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50 + 50 + 25 + 25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks.Results A dose-response for canakinumab was not apparent with any of the four predefined dose-response models. The estimated canakinumab dose with equivalent efficacy to colchicine was below the range of doses tested. At 16 weeks, there was a 62% to 72% reduction in the mean number of flares per patient for canakinumab doses >= 50 mg versus colchicine based on a negative binomial model (rate ratio: 0.28-0.38, p <= 0.0083), and the percentage of patients experiencing >= 1 flare was significantly lower for all canakinumab doses (15% to 27%) versus colchicine (44%, p<0.05). There was a 64% to 72% reduction in the risk of experiencing >= 1 flare for canakinumab doses >= 50 mg versus colchicine at 16 weeks (hazard ratio (HR): 0.28-0.36, p <= 0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups.Conclusions Single canakinumab doses >= 50 mg or four 4-weekly doses provided superior prophylaxis against flares compared with daily colchicine 0.5 mg

    Metabolic and Crystal Arthropathies [70-72]: 70. Single Intramuscular Depot Methylprednisolone Injection: A Convenient, Efficacious and Safe Treatment for Gouty Arthritis in an Inpatient Setting

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    Background: Various modalities of treatment have been used and recommended in the treatment of acute gout. These include drugs such as colchicine, NSAIDs and oral prednisolone. Intramuscular depot methylprednisolone (im MP) is currently used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as well as polymyalgia. However the response to im MP in acute gouty arthritis in an inpatient setting (where there are usually contraindications to NSAIDs) has not been previously described in literature. Methods: Eighteen case records of patients presenting with acute gouty arthritis and referred to Rheumatology, between October 2008 and October 2009, were reviewed. Results: Fourteen men and four women, with a mean age of 60 years (range 55-88 years) were seen. Of the 18, 14 patients had a previous history of chronic gout and 4 patients were newly diagnosed. Sixteen patients had polyarticular gout (mainly bilateral wrists and knees) and the remaining 2 had monoarticular gout (1 knee, 1 wrist). Seventeen patients had synovial fluid analysis, which revealed negatively birefringent urate crystals, and 1 patient refused joint aspiration. All patients had predisposing co-morbidities such as diabetes (10), hypertension (15), CCF (5), chronic kidney disease (8) and 2 patients had a history of chronic alcohol excess. Five patients initially received NSAIDs and 3 had concomitant colchicine with all 5 showing a delayed response. All patients were given im MP 120 mg in the gluteal region as a deep injection. All responded completely to im yMP within 2 days with resolution of pain and swelling of inflamed joints. All patients felt much improved and rated the treatment highly. Conclusions: The latest BSR guidelines recommends the use of steroids in the management of refractory cases of gout, i.e. patients intolerant of or having contraindications to NSAIDS or colchicine. This restricted indication is based mainly on the side effects to oral steroids or lack of expertise with intra-articular injections. We have shown that a single intramuscular methyl prednisolone injection is highly effective, very convenient, patient acceptable and safe treatment for gout particularly in elderly patients with multiple co-morbidities. As most cases of inpatient gout have comorbidities such as in our series with contraindications to NSAIDs, we recommend the use of im methyl prednisolone as the first-line treatment in such patients. It may be a less painful alternative to intra-articular steroid injections and safer than bigger doses of oral steroids (especially in diabetes). Disclosure statement: All authors have declared no conflicts of interes

    Canakinumab relieves symptoms of acute flares and improves health-related quality of life in patients with difficult-to-treat Gouty Arthritis by suppressing inflammation: results of a randomized, dose-ranging study

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    INTRODUCTION: We report the impact of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-1β monoclonal antibody, on inflammation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with difficult-to-treat Gouty Arthritis. METHODS: In this eight-week, single-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, patients with acute Gouty Arthritis flares who were unresponsive or intolerant to--or had contraindications for--non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or colchicine were randomized to receive a single subcutaneous dose of canakinumab (10, 25, 50, 90, or 150 mg) (N = 143) or an intramuscular dose of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg (N = 57). Patients assessed pain using a Likert scale, physicians assessed clinical signs of joint inflammation, and HRQoL was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) (acute version). RESULTS: At baseline, 98% of patients were suffering from moderate-to-extreme pain. The percentage of patients with no or mild pain was numerically greater in most canakinumab groups compared with triamcinolone acetonide from 24 to 72 hours post-dose; the difference was statistically significant for canakinumab 150 mg at these time points (P < 0.05). Treatment with canakinumab 150 mg was associated with statistically significant lower Likert scores for tenderness (odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27 to 7.89; P = 0.014) and swelling (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.09 to 6.50, P = 0.032) at 72 hours compared with triamcinolone acetonide. Median C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A levels were normalized by seven days post-dose in most canakinumab groups, but remained elevated in the triamcinolone acetonide group. Improvements in physical health were observed at seven days post-dose in all treatment groups; increases in scores were highest for canakinumab 150 mg. In this group, the mean SF-36 physical component summary score increased by 12.0 points from baseline to 48.3 at seven days post-dose. SF-36 scores for physical functioning and bodily pain for the canakinumab 150 mg group approached those for the US general population by seven days post-dose and reached norm values by eight weeks post-dose. CONCLUSIONS: Canakinumab 150 mg provided significantly greater and more rapid reduction in pain and signs and symptoms of inflammation compared with triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg. Improvements in HRQoL were seen in both treatment groups with a faster onset with canakinumab 150 mg compared with triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00798369

    The impact of surgical delay on resectability of colorectal cancer: An international prospective cohort study

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    AIM: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to explore the impact of surgical delays on cancer resectability. This study aimed to compare resectability for colorectal cancer patients undergoing delayed versus non-delayed surgery. METHODS: This was an international prospective cohort study of consecutive colorectal cancer patients with a decision for curative surgery (January-April 2020). Surgical delay was defined as an operation taking place more than 4 weeks after treatment decision, in a patient who did not receive neoadjuvant therapy. A subgroup analysis explored the effects of delay in elective patients only. The impact of longer delays was explored in a sensitivity analysis. The primary outcome was complete resection, defined as curative resection with an R0 margin. RESULTS: Overall, 5453 patients from 304 hospitals in 47 countries were included, of whom 6.6% (358/5453) did not receive their planned operation. Of the 4304 operated patients without neoadjuvant therapy, 40.5% (1744/4304) were delayed beyond 4 weeks. Delayed patients were more likely to be older, men, more comorbid, have higher body mass index and have rectal cancer and early stage disease. Delayed patients had higher unadjusted rates of complete resection (93.7% vs. 91.9%, P = 0.032) and lower rates of emergency surgery (4.5% vs. 22.5%, P < 0.001). After adjustment, delay was not associated with a lower rate of complete resection (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.90-1.55, P = 0.224), which was consistent in elective patients only (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.69-1.27, P = 0.672). Longer delays were not associated with poorer outcomes. CONCLUSION: One in 15 colorectal cancer patients did not receive their planned operation during the first wave of COVID-19. Surgical delay did not appear to compromise resectability, raising the hypothesis that any reduction in long-term survival attributable to delays is likely to be due to micro-metastatic disease