769 research outputs found

    Structural dynamics and divergence of the polygalacturonase gene family in land plants

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    A distinct feature of eukaryotic genomes is the presence of gene families. The polygalacturonase (PG) (EC3.2.1.15) gene family is one of the largest gene families in plants. PG is a pectin-digesting enzyme with a glycoside hydrolase 28 domain. It is involved in numerous plant developmental processes. The evolutionary processes accounting for the functional divergence and the specialized functions of PGs in land plants are unclear. Here, phylogenetic and gene structure analysis of PG genes in algae and land plants revealed that land plant PG genes resulted from differential intron gain and loss, with the latter event predominating. PG genes in land plants contained 15 homologous intron blocks and 13 novel intron blocks. Intron position and phase were not conserved between PGs of algae and land plants but conserved among PG genes of land plants from moss to vascular plants, indicating that the current introns in the PGs in land plants appeared after the split between unicellular algae and multicelluar land plants. These findings demonstrate that the functional divergence and differentiation of PGs in land plants is attributable to intronic loss. Moreover, they underscore the importance of intron gain and loss in genomic adaptation to selective pressure

    In-situ fabrication of cobalt-doped SrFe2As2 thin films by using pulsed laser deposition with excimer laser

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    The remarkably high superconducting transition temperature and upper critical field of iron(Fe)-based layered superconductors, despite ferromagnetic material base, open the prospect for superconducting electronics. However, success in superconducting electronics has been limited because of difficulties in fabricating high-quality thin films. We report the growth of high-quality c-axis-oriented cobalt(Co)-doped SrFe2As2 thin films with bulk superconductivity by using an in-situ pulsed laser deposition technique with a 248-nm-wavelength KrF excimer laser and an arsenic(As)-rich phase target. The temperature and field dependences of the magnetization showing strong diamagnetism and transport critical current density with superior Jc-H performance are reported. These results provide necessary information for practical applications of Fe-based superconductors.Comment: 8 pages, 3figures. to be published at Appl. Phys. Let

    Properties of oriented strand board made from Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes.f) Backer ex Heyne)

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    Bamboo has gained increasing attention as an alternative raw material for use in the manufacture of composite boards. Three-layer OSBs were made using Betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes.f) Backer ex Heyne) strands to evaluate the effects of strand length and pre-treatment techniques on the physical, mechanical, and durability properties. Three different strand lengths, namely 50, 60, and 70 mm, were prepared. Prior to the manufacture into OSB, the strands were immersed in cold water for 24 h and in 6% acetic anhydrides solution for 48 h. The OSBs were fabricated using 5% MDI resin based on the strand dry weight. The results indicated that MOR and MOE values in perpendicular to the grain direction were much influenced by strand length. The dimensional stability of OSB was slightly improved by immersing the strands in acetic anhydride solution. Immersing strands in cold water and acetic anhydride solution improved the resistance of OSB against subterranean termite (Macrotermes gylvus) attack under the adopted experimental condition. All OSB parameters manufactured in this experiment were better than the minimum requirement of CSA 0437.0 (Grade O–2) standard

    Rim 2/Hipa CACTA transposon display ; A new genetic marker technique in Oryza species

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    BACKGROUND: Transposons constitute the major fractions of repetitive sequences in eukaryotes, and have been crucial in the shaping of current genomes. Transposons are generally divided into two classes according to the mechanism underlying their transposition: RNA intermediate class 1 and DNA intermediate class 2. CACTA is a class 2 transposon superfamily, which is found exclusively in plants. As some transposons, including the CACTA superfamily, are highly abundant in plant species, and their nucleotide sequences are highly conserved within a family, they can be utilized as genetic markers, using a slightly modified version of the conventional AFLP protocol. Rim2 /Hipa is a CACTA transposon family having 16 bp consensus TIR sequences to be present in high copy numbers in rice genome. This research was carried out in order to develop a Rim2/Hipa CACTA-AFLP or Rim2/Hipa CACTA-TD (transposon display, hereafter Rim2/Hipa-TD) protocol for the study of genetic markers in map construction and the study of genetic diversity in rice. RESULTS: Rim2/Hipa-TD generated ample polymorphic profiles among the different rice accessions, and the amplification profiles were highly reproducible between different thermocyclers and Taq polymerases. These amplification profiles allowed for clear distinction between two different ecotypes, Japonica and Indica, of Oryza sativa. In the analysis of RIL populations, the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers were found to be segregated largely in a dominant manner, although in a few cases, non-parental bands were observed in the segregating populations. Upon linkage analysis, the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers were found to be distributed in the regions proximal to the centromeres of the chromosomes. The distribution of the Rim2/Hipa CACTA elements was surveyed in 15 different Oryza species via Rim2/Hipa-TD. While Rim2/Hipa-TD yielded ample amplification profiles between 100 to 700 bp in the AA diploid Oryza species, other species having BB, CC, EE, BBCC and CCDD, profiles demonstrated that most of the amplified fragments were larger than 400 bp, and that our methods were insufficient to clearly distinguish between these fragments. However, the overall amplification profiles between species in the Oryza genus were fully distinct. Phenetic relationships among the AA diploid Oryza species, as evidenced by the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers, were matched with their geographical distributions. CONCLUSION: The abundance of the Rim2/Hipa TIR sequences is very informative since the Rim2/Hipa-TD produced high polymorphic profiles with ample reproducibility within a species as well as between species in the Oryza genus. Therefore, Rim2/Hipa-TD markers can be useful in the development of high-density of genetic map around the centromeric regions. Rim2/Hipa-TD may also prove useful in evaluations of genetic variation and species relationships in the Oryza species

    Clinical Efficacy of Primary Tumor Volume Measurements: Comparison of Different Primary Sites

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    ObjectivesThe purpose of study was to determine the clinical efficacy of primary tumor volume measurements of different primary sites in the oropharynx compared to the oral cavity.MethodsA retrospective analysis of 85 patients with oral cavity or oropharynx cancer. The tumor area was manually outlined from axial magnetic resonance (MR) series. The software calculated the tumor volumes, automatically. The values of the primary tumor volumes were then subdivided into separate groups (≤3,500 mm3, >3,500 mm3).ResultsThe prognostic indicators were the cT and cN (oral cavity); age, primary site, cT, cN, and primary tumor volume (oropharynx) on the univariate analysis. There was no significant prognostic factor for oral cavity cancer on the multivariate analysis. Primary site, cN, and primary tumor volume were independent prognostic indicators for oropharynx cancer by multivariate analysis.ConclusionPrimary tumor volume measurement is a reliable way to stratify outcome, and make up for the weak points in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system with oropharynx cancer


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    The Hg atom in the title complex, [HgCl2(C12H13N3)], adopts a square-pyramidal geometry, being ligated by three N atoms of the tridentate bis­(2-pyridylmeth­yl)amine ligand and two Cl atoms, with one of the latter occupying the apical position. Disorder is noted in the amine portion of the ligand and this was modelled over two sites, with the major component having a site-occupancy factor of 0.794 (14)

    Favorable effect of corticosteroids in treating acute-on-chronic liver failure underlying chronic hepatitis B

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    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) occurs in the presence of a chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, and often results from exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The efficacy of corticosteroid treatment in ACLF patients with underlying CHB remains unclear. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who experienced ACLF due to CHB exacerbation and was treated with a combination of corticosteroids and nucleot(s)ide analogue (NUC). The patient showed rapid decompensation due to CHB exacerbation. Three months of antiviral therapy produced no improvement in liver function. Combination therapy with corticosteroids and NUC was started, which did result in improvement of liver function. This case shows that the combined therapy of corticosteroids and NUC can be effective in treating ACLF due to CHB exacerbation

    Evaluation of the transporter-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of DA-9801, a standardized dioscorea extract for diabetic neuropathy, in human in vitro and rat in vivo

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    BACKGROUND: Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential is important in the clinic and in the drug development process. DA-9801, comprising a mixed extract of Dioscoreae rhizoma and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a new standardized extract currently being evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a phase II clinical study. METHOD: The inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on the transport functions of organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were investigated in HEK293 or LLC-PK1 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on the pharmacokinetics of relevant substrate drugs of these transporters were also examined in vivo in rats. RESULTS: DA-9801 inhibited the in vitro transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT3, and OATP1B1, with IC(50) values of 106, 174, 48.1, and 273 μg/mL, respectively, while the other transporters were not inhibited by 300 μg/mL DA-9801. To investigate whether this inhibitory effect of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 could change the pharmacokinetics of their substrates in vivo, we measured the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine, a substrate for OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3, and of furosemide, a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3, by co-administration of DA-9801 at a single oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Pre-dose of DA-9801 5 min or 2 h prior to cimetidine administration decreased the C(max) of cimetidine in rats. However, DA-9801 did not affect the elimination parameters such as half-life, clearance, or amount excreted in the urine, suggesting that it did not inhibit elimination process of cimetidine, which is governed by OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3. Moreover, DA-9801 did not affect the pharmacokinetic characteristics of furosemide, as evidenced by its unchanged pharmacokinetic parameters. CONCLUSION: Inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 observed in vitro may not necessarily translate into in vivo herb-drug interactions in rats even at its maximum effective dose