46 research outputs found

    Commodities fluctuations, cross border flows and financial innovation: A stock‐flow analysis

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    At the beginning of the 2000s, Latin America countries experienced rising commodities prices and, in turn, foreign investors shifted part of their portfolio composition toward the region. Unlike past episodes, more integrated financial markets allowed international players to invest in a wider range of financial instruments, usually related to composite commodity indexes. We investigate the macroeconomic implications of such innovative practices, focusing in particular on currency swings, by adopting a stock‐flow consistent (SFC) framework. The element of novelty of our contribution consists in depicting a financial sector, which issues Commodity‐Linked Notes (CLNs) to be sold to households in the developed country

    Evaluando el rol financiero del tipo de cambio

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    Our contribution aims at rethinking the role of the exchange rate as a tool to boost investment and structural change, by constructing an analytical macro model based on Frenkel and Ros (2006), Ros (2015) and Dvoskin and Feldman (2018). We consider, in particular, the financial cost of depreciation, which is generated by imbalances in the foreign exchange rate position in firms’ balance sheet. The imbalance, as stylized facts for Mexico show, is due to the excess of imported capital goods and the issuance of foreign exchange debt. Results from the model shows that exchange rate policies work to promote capital accumulation and structural change, however, there are specific conditions under which they must operate.Nuestro aporte apunta a repensar el papel del tipo de cambio como herramienta para impulsar la inversión y el cambio estructural, mediante la construcción de un modelo macro analítico basado en Frenkel y Ros (2006), Ros (2015) y Dvoskin y Feldman (2018). Consideramos, en particular, el costo financiero de la depreciación, que se genera por los desequilibrios en la posición del tipo de cambio en el balance de las empresas. El desequilibrio, como muestran hechos estilizados para México, se debe al exceso de bienes de capital importados y a la emisión de deuda en moneda extranjera. Los resultados del modelo muestran que las políticas cambiarias funcionan para promover la acumulación de capital y el cambio estructural, sin embargo, existen condiciones específicas bajo las cuales deben operar

    A rare truncating BRCA2 variant and genetic susceptibility to upper aerodigestive tract cancer

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    © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact [email protected] Funding This work was supported the National Institutes of Health (R01CA092039 05/05S1) and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (1R03DE020116). Notes The authors thank all of the participants who took part in this research and the funders and technical staff who made this study possible. We acknowledge and thank Simone Benhamou (INSERM, France) for sample contributions. We also acknowledge and thank The Cancer Genome Atlas initiative, whose data contributed heavily to this study.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Using Prior Information from the Medical Literature in GWAS of Oral Cancer Identifies Novel Susceptibility Variant on Chromosome 4 - the AdAPT Method

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    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) require large sample sizes to obtain adequate statistical power, but it may be possible to increase the power by incorporating complementary data. In this study we investigated the feasibility of automatically retrieving information from the medical literature and leveraging this information in GWAS. Methods: We developed a method that searches through PubMed abstracts for pre-assigned keywords and key concepts, and uses this information to assign prior probabilities of association for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the phenotype of interest - the Adjusting Association Priors with Text (AdAPT) method. Association results from a GWAS can subsequently be ranked in the context of these priors using the Bayes False Discovery Probability (BFDP) framework. We initially tested AdAPT by comparing rankings of known susceptibility alleles in a previous lung cancer GWAS, and subsequently applied it in a two-phase GWAS of oral cancer. Results: Known lung cancer susceptibility SNPs were consistently ranked higher by AdAPT BFDPs than by p-values. In the oral cancer GWAS, we sought to replicate the top five SNPs as ranked by AdAPT BFDPs, of which rs991316, located in the ADH gene region of 4q23, displayed a statistically significant association with oral cancer risk in the replication phase (per-rare-allele log additive p-value [p(trend)] = 2.5 x 10(-3)). The combined OR for having one additional rare allele was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and this association was independent of previously identified susceptibility SNPs that are associated with overall UADT cancer in this gene region. We also investigated if rs991316 was associated with other cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), but no additional association signal was found. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential utility of systematically incorporating prior knowledge from the medical literature in genome-wide analyses using the AdAPT methodology. AdAPT is available online (url: http://services.gate.ac.uk/lld/gwas/service/config)

    The 12p13.33/RAD52 locus and genetic susceptibility to squamous cell cancers of upper aerodigestive tract

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    Acknowledgments: The authors thank all of the participants who took part in this research and the funders and support and technical staff who made this study possible. We also acknowledge and thank The Cancer Genome Atlas initiative whose data contributed heavily to this study. Funding: Funding for study coordination, genotyping of replication studies and statistical analysis was provided by the US National Institutes of Health (R01 CA092039 05/05S1) and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (1R03DE020116). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) Phase 4 (2018) : Change management in allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity using mobile technology

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    Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline by using the best approach to integrated care pathways using mobile technology in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. The proposed next phase of ARIA is change management, with the aim of providing an active and healthy life to patients with rhinitis and to those with asthma multimorbidity across the lifecycle irrespective of their sex or socioeconomic status to reduce health and social inequities incurred by the disease. ARIA has followed the 8-step model of Kotter to assess and implement the effect of rhinitis on asthma multimorbidity and to propose multimorbid guidelines. A second change management strategy is proposed by ARIA Phase 4 to increase self-medication and shared decision making in rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. An innovation of ARIA has been the development and validation of information technology evidence-based tools (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network [MASK]) that can inform patient decisions on the basis of a self-care plan proposed by the health care professional.Peer reviewe

    Adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis using mobile technology. The MASK Study

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    Background: Mobile technology may help to better understand the adherence to treatment. MASK-rhinitis (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a patient-centred ICT system. A mobile phone app (the Allergy Diary) central to MASK is available in 22 countries. Objectives: To assess the adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis patients using the Allergy Diary App. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on all users who filled in the Allergy Diary from 1 January 2016 to 1 August 2017. Secondary adherence was assessed by using the modified Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) and the Proportion of days covered (PDC) approach. Results: A total of 12143 users were registered. A total of 6949 users reported at least one VAS data recording. Among them, 1887 users reported >= 7 VAS data. About 1195 subjects were included in the analysis of adherence. One hundred and thirty-six (11.28%) users were adherent (MPR >= 70% and PDC = 70% and PDC = 1.50) and 176 (14.60%) were switchers. On the other hand, 832 (69.05%) users were non-adherent to medications (MPR Conclusion and clinical relevance: Adherence to treatment is low. The relative efficacy of continuous vs on-demand treatment for allergic rhinitis symptoms is still a matter of debate. This study shows an approach for measuring retrospective adherence based on a mobile app. This also represents a novel approach for analysing medication-taking behaviour in a real-world setting.Peer reviewe

    A Sex-Specific Association between a 15q25 Variant and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers

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    Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and esophagus) in women (odds ratio (OR) =1.24, P=0.003) with little effect in men (OR=1.04, P=0.35)
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