4,436 research outputs found

    Vertex operator for the non-autonomous ultradiscrete KP equation

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    We propose an ultradiscrete analogue of the vertex operator in the case of the ultradiscrete KP equation--several other ultradiscrete equations--which maps N-soliton solutions to N+1-soliton ones.Comment: 9 page

    A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping-wing aerodynamics

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    Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimization is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into quasi-steady forces and parameterized based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power as the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterized on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. This demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned aerial systems

    Solutions to the ultradiscrete Toda molecule equation expressed as minimum weight flows of planar graphs

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    We define a function by means of the minimum weight flow on a planar graph and prove that this function solves the ultradiscrete Toda molecule equation, its B\"acklund transformation and the two dimensional Toda molecule equation. The method we employ in the proof can be considered as fundamental to the integrability of ultradiscrete soliton equations.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures Added citations in v

    Optimal design of injection mold for plastic bonded magnet

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    The optimal design of an injection mold for producing a stronger multipole magnet is carried out using the finite element method and the direct search method. It is shown that the maximum flux density in the cavity obtained by the optimal design is about 2.6 times higher than that of the initial shape determined empirically. 3-D analysis of the nonlinear magnetic field in the injection mold with complicated structure is also carried out. The calculated flux distribution on the cavity surface is in good agreement with the measured one</p

    Nonlinear wave propagation through cold plasma

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    Electromagnetic wave propagation through cold collision free plasma is studied using the nonlinear perturbation method. It is found that the equations can be reduced to the modified Kortweg-de Vries equation

    An improved method for determining the DC magnetization curve using a ring specimen

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    When the DC magnetization curve (B-H) of nonoriented material is measured in a ring specimen, there is an intrinsic error due to the assumption that the mean magnetic path length is equal to the mean geometric path length. A novel method for determining the B-H curve accurately is proposed. The validity of the method is verified by experiments</p

    Permanence and extinction for a nonautonomous SEIRS epidemic model

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    In this paper, we study the long-time behavior of a nonautonomous SEIRS epidemic model. We obtain new sufficient conditions for the permanence (uniform persistence) and extinction of infectious population of the model. By numerical examples we show that there are cases such that our results improve the previous results obtained in [T. Zhang, Z. Teng, On a nonautonomous SEIRS model in epidemiology, Bull. Math. Bio. 69 (2007) 2537-2559]. We discuss a relation between our results and open questions proposed in the paper

    Application of the finite element method to the design of permanent magnets

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    Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the Northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India

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    Numerous newly-identified traces of active faults in the Himalayan foothill zone along the HFF around Chandigarh, in Pinjore Dun, along the piedmont zone of the Lower Siwalik hill front and within the Lower Tertiary hill range reveal the pattern of thrust and strike-slip faulting, striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNW-SSE) of the orogenic belt. The active Chandigarh Fault, Pinjore Garden Fault and Barsar thrust have vertically dislocated, warped and backtilted fluvial and alluvial-fan surfaces made up of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. West- and southwest-facing fault scarplets with heights ranging from 12 to 50 m along these faults suggest continued tectonic movement through Late Pleistocene to recent times. Gentle warping and backtilting of the terraces on the hanging wall sides of the faults indicate fault-bend folding. These active faults are the manifestation of north-dipping imbricated thrust faults branching out from the major fault systems like the Main Boundary Fault (MBF) and Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF), probably merging down northward into a décollement. The Taksal Fault, striking NNW-SSE, shows prominent right-lateral movement marked by lateral offset of streams and younger Quaternary terraces and occupies a narrow deep linear valley along the fault trace. Right stepping along this fault has resulted in formation of a small pull-apart basin. Fault scarplets facing ENE and WSW are the manifestation of dip-slip movement. This fault is an example of slip-partitioning between the strike-slip and thrust faults, suggesting ongoing oblique convergence of the Indian plate and northward migration of a tectonic sliver. Slip rate along the Taksal Fault has been calculated as 2.8 mm/yr. Preliminary trench investigation at the base of the Chandigarh Fault Scarp has revealed total displacement of 3.5 m along a low angle thrust fault with variable dip of 20° to 46° due northeast, possibly the result of one large magnitude (Mw 7) prehistoric earthquake. Taking into consideration the height of the Pinjore surface (20 to 25 m), tentative age (8.9 ± 1.9 ka), displacement during one event and average angle of fault dip (25°) gives slip rate of about 6.3 ± 2 mm/yr, a rate of horizontal shortening of 5.8 ± 1.8 mm/yr and recurrence of faulting of 555 ± 118 years along the Himalayan Frontal Fault
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