51,104 research outputs found

    Lorentz Transform of Black Body Radiation Temperature

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    The Lorentz transform of black body radiation has been investigated from the view point of relativistic statistical mechanics. The result shows that the well known expression with the directional temperature can be derived based on the inverse temperature four vector. The directional temperature in the past literature was the result of mathematical manipulation and its physical meaning is not clear. The inverse temperature four vector has, in contrast, clear meaning to understand relativistic thermodynamical processes.Comment: 6 pages, no figur

    Three Views of a Secret in Relativistic Thermodynamics

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    It has been shown three different views in relativistic thermodynamics can be derived from the basic formulation proposed by van Kampen and Israel. The way to decompose energy-momentum into the reversible and irreversible parts is not uniquely determined, and different choices result in different views. The effect of difference in the definition of a finite volume is also considered.Comment: 4 pages, no figure

    Second Order Gauge Invariant Perturbation Theory -- Perturbative curvatures in the two-parameter case --

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    Based on the gauge invariant variables proposed in our previous paper [K. Nakamura, Prog. Theor. Phys. vol.110 (2003), 723.], some formulae of the perturbative curvatures of each order are derived. We follow the general framework of the second order gauge invariant perturbation theory on arbitrary background spacetime to derive these formulae. These perturbative curvatures do have the same form as the definitions of gauge invariant variables for arbitrary perturbative fields which are previously proposed. As a result, we explicitly see that any perturbative Einstein equations are given in terms of gauge invarinat form. We briefly discuss physical situations to which this framework should be applied.Comment: 31 pages, 1 figure, PTPTEX (ptptex.cls ver 0.9);Some typos in the published version are correcte

    Gauge-invariant variables in general-relativistic perturbations: globalization and zero-mode problem

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    An outline of a proof of the local decomposition of linear metric perturbations into gauge-invariant and gauge-variant parts on an arbitrary background spacetime is briefly explained. We explicitly construct the gauge-invariant and gauge-variant parts of the linear metric perturbations based on some assumptions. We also point out the zero-mode problem is an essential problem to globalize of this decomposition of linear metric perturbations. The resolution of this zero-mode problem implies the possibility of the development of the higher-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory on an arbitrary background spacetime in a global sense.Comment: (v1) 16 pages, no figure; (v2) 9 pages, no figure. Compactified for "2012 Awards for Essays on Gravitation" promoted by Gravity Research Foundation. References are deleted. no ingredients is changed. This version received Honorable Mention for 201
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