87 research outputs found

    NH3 in the Galactic Center is formed in Cool Conditions

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    It is an open question why the temperature of molecular gas in the Galactic center region is higher than that of dust. To address this problem, we made simultaneous observations in the NH_3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of the central molecular zone (CMZ) using the Kagoshima 6 m telescope. The ortho-to-para ratio of NH_3 molecules in the CMZ is 1.5--3.5 at most observed area. This ratio is higher than the statistical equilibrium value, and suggests that the formation temperature of NH_3 is 11--20 K. This temperature is similar to the dust temperature estimated from the submillimeter and infrared continuum. This result suggests that the NH_3 molecules in the CMZ were produced on dust grains with the currently observed temperature (11--20 K), and they were released into the gas phase by supernova shocks or collisions of dust particles. The discrepancy between warm molecular gas and cold dust can be explained by the transient heating of the interstellar media in the CMZ approximately 10^5 years ago when the NH_3 molecules were released from the dust.Comment: 19 pages, 12 figures, accepted for PAS

    A Complete Survey of the Central Molecular Zone in NH3

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    We present a map of the major part of the central molecular zone (CMZ) of simultaneous observations in the NH3 (J,K) = (1,1) and (2,2) lines using the Kagoshima 6-m telescope. The mapped area is -1.000 < l < 1.625 deg, -0.375 < b < +0.250 deg. The kinetic temperatures derived from the (2,2) to (1,1) intensity ratios are 20--80 K or exceed 80 K. The gases corresponding to temperature of 20--80 K and > 80 K contain 75% and 25% of the total NH3 flux, respectively. These temperatures indicate that the dense molecular gas in the CMZ is dominated by gas that is warmer than the majority of the dust present there. A comparison with the CO survey by Sawada et al. (2001) shows that the NH3 emitting region is surrounded by a high pressure region on the l-v plane. Although NH3 emission traces dense gas, it is not extended into a high pressure region. Therefore, the high pressure region is less dense and has to be hotter. This indicates that the molecular cloud complex in the Galactic center region has a ``core'' of dense and warm clouds which are traced by the NH3 emission, and an ``envelope'' of less dense and hotter gas clouds. Besides heating by ambipolar diffusion, the hot plasma gas emitting the X-ray emission may heat the hot ``envelope''.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figures, accepted for PAS

    VLBI Observations of Water Masers in Onsala 1: Massive Binary Star Forming Site?

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    We present proper motions of water masers toward the Onsala 1 star forming region, observed with the Japanese VLBI network at three epochs spanning 290 days. We found that there are two water maser clusters (WMC1 and WMC2) separated from each other by 1".6 (2900 AU at a distance of 1.8 kpc). The proper motion measurement reveals that WMC1 is associated with a bipolar outflow elongated in the east-west direction with an expansion velocity of 69+-11 km/s. WMC1 and WMC2 are associated with two 345 GHz continuum dust emission sources, and located 2" (3600 AU) east from the core of an ultracompact HII region traced by 8.4 GHz radio continuum emission. This indicates that star formation activity of Onsala 1 could move from the west side of ultracompact HII region to the east side of two young stellar objects associated with the water masers. We also find that WMC1 and UC HII region could be gravitationally bound. Their relative velocity along the line of sight is 3 km/s, and total mass is 37 Mo. Onsala 1 seems to harbor a binary star at different evolutionary stage.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted for PAS

    Trigonometric distance and proper motions of H2O maser bowshocks in AFGL 5142

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    We present the results of multi-epoch VLBI observations of water masers in the AGFL 5142 massive star forming region. We measure an annual parallax of π=0.467±0.010\pi=0.467 \pm 0.010 mas, corresponding to a source distance of D=2.140.049+0.051D=2.14^{+0.051}_{-0.049} kpc. Proper motion and line of sight velocities reveal the 3D kinematics of masers in this region, most of which associate with millimeter sources from the literature. In particular we find remarkable bipolar bowshocks expanding from the most massive member, AFGL 5142 MM1, which are used to investigate the physical properties of its protostellar jet. We attempt to link the known outflows in this region to possible progenitors by considering a precessing jet scenario and we discuss the episodic nature of ejections in AFGL 5142
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