15 research outputs found

    Cell competition is driven by Xrp1-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α

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    生体から不良細胞を除去する「細胞競合」の仕組みの一端を解明 --不良細胞は小胞体ストレス応答機構を使ってタンパク質合成量を低下させ除去される--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2021-12-08.Cell competition is a context-dependent cell elimination via cell-cell interaction whereby unfit cells (‘losers’) are eliminated from the tissue when confronted with fitter cells (‘winners’). Despite extensive studies, the mechanism that drives loser’s death and its physiological triggers remained elusive. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we find that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes cell competition. Mechanistically, ER stress upregulates the bZIP transcription factor Xrp1, which promotes phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α via the kinase PERK, leading to cell elimination. Surprisingly, our genetic data show that different cell competition triggers such as ribosomal protein mutations or RNA helicase Hel25E mutations converge on upregulation of Xrp1, which leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and thus causes reduction in global protein synthesis and apoptosis when confronted with wild-type cells. These findings not only uncover a core pathway of cell competition but also open the way to understanding the physiological triggers of cell competition

    Somatostatin analogue treatment of cervical lymphorrhea after neck dissection

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    Palladium-Catalyzed <i>para</i>-Selective Allylation of 1‑(Cyanomethyl)arenes with Allyl Acetates

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    The Pd/PMe3-catalyzed allylation of 1-(cyanomethyl)naphthalenes with allyl acetates proved to be para- rather than α-regioselective. This reaction is thought to proceed through ligand attack of the para-carbon in the arenes, electronically enriched by a cyano-stabilized α-carbanion, to the (π-allyl)palladium and a 1,5-hydrogen shift of the para-hydrogen from the dearomatized intermediate

    Development of a novel class of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma ligands as an anticancer agent with a unique binding mode based on a non-thiazolidinedione scaffold

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    We previously identified dibenzooxepine derivative 1 as a potent PPAR. ligand with a unique binding mode owing to its non-thiazolidinedione scaffold. However, while 1 showed remarkably potent MKN-45 gastric cancer cell aggregation activity, an indicator of cancer differentiation-inducing activity induced by PPAR. activation, we recognized that 1 was metabolically unstable. In the present study, we identified a metabolically soft spot, and successfully discovered 3-fluoro dibenzooxepine derivative 9 with better metabolic stability. Further optimization provided imidazo[1,2-alpha]pyridine derivative 17, which showed potent MKN-45 gastric cancer cell aggregation activity and excellent PK profiles compared with 9. Compound 17 exerted a growth inhibitory effect on AsPC-1/AG1 pancreatic tumor in mice. Furthermore, the decrease in the hematocrit (an indicator of localized edema, a serious adverse effect of PPAR gamma ligands) was tolerable even with oral administration at 200 mg/kg in healthy mice
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